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An opponent of the People: A key to Arthur Miller’s Art and also Ethics David Bronsen Arthur Miller has actually been generosity in acknowledging his debt to his avowed master, Henrik Ibsen. It is the Ibsen of the middle period with who he identifies, the writer of The Pillars the Society, A Doll’s House, Ghosts, and also An foe of the People. These room Ibsen’s real­ istic social dramas, all of them examples of the so-called well-made play in i m sorry the central character is it was observed in his partnership to society. In all yet the first of these, a protagonist that is preoccupied with justice commits self to perfect which he refuses come relinquish, back his own life would be made less complicated if he embraced the alterna­ tive proffered him. By taking it upon himself to adapt the Norwegian playwright’s An adversary of the People, Miller to be in effect saying that his basic con­ cerns almost right those the Ibsen. By and large he is no wrong in his assumption, insofar together it involves the duration in Ibsen’s career which experienced the production of the television series mentioned. Top top the various other hand, al­ though Miller to be attracted to adversary by what the looked upon as its message and by certain affinities he felt he shared with Ibsen, the fact of the issue is the his adaptation that the pat is significant by a decided­ ly different bias. By compare the occupational of the master with the of the disciple who is dealing with the same characters, plot material, and also construction, the measure up of the latter as a playwright will certainly be taken. Ns The existing study need to be instructive in other ways. It will certainly test, if just indirectly, the fault-finding that a variety of critics who look upon Ibsen’s opponent as a second-rate work.l In many instances, together commentators have the right to arrive at their conclusions just by overlooking the complex ambivalence the the play. They urge on that is straightforward­ ness, on its portrayal of a righteous hero at loggerheads v a cor­ rupt mob. In reality, however, the is a dubious and also egotistical “hero” who stands accused by a “ sensible” and also hypocritical assembly that citi­ zens. Opponent is a research in faint in i beg your pardon the currently between good 229 230 comparative Drama and evil are less clearly drawn than these critics would have actually us believe. Many of the detractors of adversary see the play together an wild apologia composed in an answer to the abuse heaped upon the author as a an outcome of Ghosts, that controversial predecessor.2 follow to this line of reasoning, enemy is a weak play due to the fact that the author uses Dr. Stockmann as his mouthpiece to express his contumely and also exasper­ ation. Ibsen himself, to be sure, commented on details similarities in between his make-up and that of Dr. Stockmann.3 yet he overdrew few of these similarities to the suggest of self-mockery. The excessive wrath and also resentment of Dr. Stockmann, come the degree that lock reflect Ibsen’s rancor over the reception of Ghosts, room transmuted right into a satire Ibsen directs at himself for being lugged away right into the equiva­ lent that the overly emotionally harangues that the fourth act. Ibsen as the author of Ghosts play the function of medical professional in diag­ nosing a societal malady and also was self accused of dispersing illness. In enemy he dramatizes the situation of a physician who discovers the resource of epidemic in the community and is bonus by being de­ nounced as “an opponent of the people.” but contrary come what this facts seem to suggest, foe does no constitute a clear-cut attempt on the component of the dramatist in ~ self-vindication. The Dr. Stockmann the Ibsen has actually drawn and who is so eager to slam is because that his own part very lot open come criticism.

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There is a leavening of comedy ex­ pressing itself in the type of irony and also satire in Enemy, and also that this was conscious is borne the end by a letter the writer wrote his publisher on perfect of the play: “ ns am still a tiny uncertain even if it is to contact it a comedy or simply a play; the has...


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