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You are watching: During respiration, most atp is formed as a direct result of the net movement of

Berg JM, Tymoczko JL, Stryer L. Biochemistry. 5th edition. Brand-new York: W H Freeman; 2002.


By commitment with the publisher, this book is available by the find feature, however cannot be browsed.
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Figure

Mitochondria, Stained Green, kind a Network within a Fibroblast Cell(Left). Mitochondria oxidation carbon fuels to type cellular energy. Thistransformation needs electron transfer v several huge proteincomplexes (above), several of which pump (more...)


The NADH and FADH2 developed in glycolysis, fatty acid oxidation, and thecitric acid cycle are energy-rich molecules due to the fact that each contains a pair ofelectrons having actually a high move potential. As soon as these electron are provided to reducemolecular oxygen come water, a big amount of cost-free energy is liberated, which have the right to beused to create ATP. Oxidative phosphorylation is the procedure in which ATPis created as a an outcome of the move of electron from NADH or FADH2to O2by a collection of electron carriers. This process, i m sorry takes placein mitochondria, is the major source the ATP in aerobic organisms (Figure 18.1). Because that example, oxidativephosphorylation generates 26 the the 30 molecule of ATP that are formed when glucoseis completely oxidized come CO2 and also H2O.


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Oxidative phosphorylation is conceptually straightforward and mechanistically complex. Indeed,the unraveling that the device of oxidative phosphorylation has been one of themost difficult problems the biochemistry. The circulation of electron from NADH orFADH2 come O2 v protein complexes located in themitochondrial inside membrane leads to the pump of protons the end of themitochondrial matrix. The resulting uneven distribution of protons generates a pHgradient and a transmembrane electrical potential that creates aproton-motive force. ATP is synthesized as soon as protons circulation backto the mitochondrial matrix with an enzyme complex. Thus, the oxidationof fuels and also the phosphorylation that ADP space coupled by a proton gradient acrossthe inner mitochondrial membrane (Figure 18.2).


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Figure 18.2

Essence the Oxidative Phosphorylation. Oxidation and also ATP synthesis space coupled by transmembrane protonfluxes.


Oxidative phosphorylation is the culmination of a collection of energytransformations that are dubbed cellular respirationor merely respiration in your entirety. First, carbon fuels areoxidized in the citric acid cycle to yield electrons with high transfer potential.Then, this electron-motive force is converted right into a proton-motive force and,finally, the proton-motive force is converted right into phosphoryl move potential.The switch of electron-motive force into proton-motive pressure is lugged out bythree electron-driven proton pumps—NADH-Q oxidoreductase, Q-cytochromec oxidoreductase, and cytochrome c oxidase.These large transmembrane complexes save on computer multiple oxidation-reduction centers,including quinones, flavins, iron-sulfur clusters, hemes, and also copper ions. The finalphase the oxidative phosphorylation is brought out by ATP synthase,an ATP-synthesizing assembly the is propelled by the flow of protons earlier into themitochondrial matrix. Components of this amazing enzyme turn as component of itscatalytic mechanism. Oxidative phosphorylation vividly mirrors that protongradients room an interconvertible money of complimentary energy in biologicalsystems.

Respiration—

An ATP-generating process in i m sorry an not natural compound (such as molecularoxygen) serves together the can be fried electron acceptor. The electron donor have the right to beeither one organic compound or an inorganic one.

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18.1. Oxidative Phosphorylation in eukaryotes Takes place in Mitochondria18.2. Oxidative Phosphorylation relies on Electron Transfer18.3. The respiratory tract Chain is composed of 4 Complexes: 3 Proton Pumps and a Physical attach to the Citric mountain Cycle18.4. A Proton Gradient strength the synthesis of ATP18.5. Many Shuttles permit Movement across the Mitochondrial Membranes18.6. The Regulation of to move Respiration Is Governed mainly by the need for ATPSummaryProblemsSelected Readings

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