Glucose is metabolized to pyruvate.
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All intermediates lug phosphate teams to lock them into the cell (stops diffusion).Hexokinase / Glucokinase: both irreversible Glucose + ATP ----> Glucose-6-phosphate + ADP Hexokinase:
Catalyzes the phosphorylation the hexoses in general and also is discovered in all cells that metabolize glucose.
Has a low km (high affinity) so that it is energetic even at low glucose concentrations.Glucokinase:
Glucose specific, uncovered in liver.
Has a high km (low affinity) come ensure a n appropriate an answer to key of glucose indigenous the diet.Phosphofructokinase-1 (PFK-1): irreversible Fructose-6-phosphate + ATP ------> Fructose-1,6-bisphosphate + ADP
Rate-Limiting, significant Regulated Step.Aldolase: Fructose-1,6-bisphosphate Dihydroxyacetone phosphate +Glycerladehyde-3-phosphate
Completes the very first phase the glycolysis.
These trioses room interconverted by triose phosphate isomerase ------------>To develop a single product, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate.
Two molecule of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate continue through glycolysis.Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate Dehydrogenase: Oxidation-Reduction Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate + NAD+ + Pi 1,3-Bisphosphoglycerate + NADH NADH developed must it is in reoxidized to regenerate NAD+ to sustain glycolysis. Energy released from this reaction is conserved as a high power phosphate bond in 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate. Inorganic phosphate, fairly than ATP, gives the resource of the phosphoryl group. Aerobic Conditions:
Mitochondrial equipment oxidize NADH and produce ATP.Phosphoglycerate Kinase: "Substrate Level Phosphorylation" 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate + ADP 3-phosphoglycerate + ATP
1,3-Bisphosphoglycerate is a high power intermediate that drives the phosphorylation that ADP to ATP.
Remember: two molecules are proceeding with glycolysis, so 2 ATP.Pyruvate Kinase: "Substrate Level Phosphorylation"
Phosphoenolpyruvate + ADP -------> Pyruvate + ATP
Irreversible, extremely Regulated.
Produce 2 ATP.Lactate Dehydrogenase: "Anaerobic" Pyruvate + NADH ----> Lactate + NAD+ This action regenerates NAD+ because that glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase or glycolysis would STOP. H4: love isozyme, high affinity because that lactate (low Km), allosterically inhibited by pyruvate.
When pyruvate is high oxidizes to Acetyl CoA.M4: muscle isozyme, produces lactate in muscle as soon as pyruvate is high. Power Yield:
Anaerobic (i.e. RBC): Pyruvate ---> Lactate, 2 ATP every glucose molecule.
Aerobic: Mitochondrial oxidation of NADH via electron transfer shuttles.NADH ----> 2 ATP, a-glycerol phosphate spaceship (4 ATP per glucose) NADH ----> 3 ATP, malate-aspartate spaceship (6 ATP every glucose)Fructose Metabolism: Occurs in liver.
UDP-Glucose is one activated form of glucose discovered as an intermediary in glycogen formation.
UDP-Glucose is recycle from UDP-Galactose thus, over there is no NET readjust in concentration the this compound.
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(Fructose enters in ~ glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate)
(Galactose enters at glucose-6-phosphate)© Dr. Noel Sturm 2020
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