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as mandatory COVID-19 vaccines become an ext widespread, many employers are asking what they can do if workers refuse. Part employers space firing workers who won"t take the vaccine and others room requiring unvaccinated employees to submit to weekly testing and also take other safety precautions. 

The same Employment opportunity Commission (EEOC) has weighed in through guidance the answers some workplace vaccination questions. For example, the agency said that commonwealth anti-discrimination laws don"t prohibit employers indigenous requiring every employees who physically enter the workplace to it is in vaccinated because that COVID-19. Employers that encourage or call for vaccinations, however, need to comply v the Americans through Disabilities action (ADA), title VII the the Civil civil liberties Act of 1964 and other workplace laws, according to the EEOC.

"An employee through a spiritual objection or a impairment may should be excused native the mandate or otherwise accommodated," noted John Lomax, an attorney through Snell & Wilmer in Phoenix. "Additionally, if an objecting employee is a union-represented employee, the employer may need to bargain and also reach an agreement with the union before mandating vaccines."

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Disability Accommodation

"If an employee refuses to acquire a vaccine, an employer needs to advice the hazard that objection poses, particularly if an employee is mandating that employees receive a COVID-19 vaccine," Lomax said.

A vaccination mandate need to be job-related and consistent with service necessity. Under the ADA, an employer can have a workplace policy that contains "a necessity that an individual shall not pose a direct threat come the wellness or safety and security of people in the workplace."

If a vaccination requirement screens out a worker with a disability, however, the employee must show that unvaccinated employees would certainly pose together a threat. The EEOC specifies a "direct threat" together a "significant risk of comprehensive harm that cannot be removed or lessened by reasonable accommodation."

The company said employers should evaluate four components to recognize whether a direct threat exists:

The term of the risk.The nature and severity of the potential harm.The likelihood the the potential harm will occur.The imminence that the potential harm. 

If an employee that cannot be vaccinated poses a straight threat to the workplace, the employer must consider whether a reasonable accommodation deserve to be made, together as permitting the employee to job-related remotely or take it a leave of absence.  

"Managers and also supervisors responsible for connecting with employees around compliance through the employer"s inoculation requirement should know just how to recognize an accommodation request from one employee through a disability and also know to who the request must be referred for consideration," the EEOC said.  

Employers and also employees need to work with each other to recognize whether a reasonable accommodation deserve to be made. Helene Hechtkopf, an attorney through Hoguet Newman Regal & Kenney in new York City, stated employers have to evaluate:

The employee"s project functions.Whether over there is an alternative job the the employee can do that would make vaccination less critical.How important it is to the employer"s operations the the employee it is in vaccinated.

Religious Accommodation

Title VII requires an employer to accommodate one employee"s sincerely held spiritual belief, practice or observance, unless it would cause an undue hardship ~ above the business. Courts have said the an "undue hardship" is developed by one accommodation that has more than a "de minimis," or very small, cost or burden on the employer.

The meaning of faith is vast and protects spiritual beliefs and practices that may be unfamiliar come the employer. Therefore, the employee "should ordinarily assume the an employee"s request for spiritual accommodation is based on a dear held spiritual belief," follow to the EEOC. "However, if one employee request a spiritual accommodation, and also an employee is conscious of facts that carry out an objective basis for questioning either the religious nature or the sincerity the a specific belief, practice or observance, the employer would certainly be justification in requesting added supporting information."

"If an employee cannot acquire vaccinated due to the fact that of a special needs or dear held spiritual belief, and also there is no reasonable house possible, an employer might exclude the employee from physically entering the workplace," stated Johnny C. Taylor, Jr.,, the culture for Human resource Management"s president and also chief executive officer. "But this doesn"t average an individual can be automatically terminated. Job will need to recognize if any type of other rights apply under the EEO regulations or various other federal, state and local authorities."

Terminations and also Heightened Safety Measures

Many companies, including some huge employers, room implementing vaccine mandates, because the vaccination rate has actually stalled, and also COVID-19 cases have spiked as result of the Delta variant. In mid-June, the U.S. Centers for condition Control and also Prevention (CDC) reported an average of around 12,000 new COVID-19 cases each day, however the rate recently surpassed 60,000 a job on average. "An increase in the number of cases will certainly put much more strain ~ above health care resources, command to much more hospitalizations and also potentially much more deaths," follow to the CDC. The firm said that vaccines room the best protection against variants. 

In response to the uptick in cases, the commonwealth government and also some state and also local governments also are requiring particular public employees, and also those that work in health care and other high-risk settings, to acquire inoculated. Rules vary, however many directives ask employees to display vaccination evidence or send to weekly COVID-19 testing, wear masks, and also keep physically remote from various other workers and visitors.

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Some establishments are shoot employees who don"t comply through a vaccine mandate. A commonwealth judge freshly sided v a huge hospital system that decided to fire employees who refused the shot. The lead plaintiff who challenged the policy "is refusing to accept inoculation that, in the hospital"s judgment, will make it safer for ," the referee said.

Encouraging Vaccinations

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration completely approved the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine ~ above Aug. 23, i m sorry public health professionals said could make it much easier for employers come mandate the shot. 

"If an employee plans to call for its employees to obtain a COVID-19 vaccine, it should construct a written policy," Hechtkopf recommended. For employees who refuse to be vaccinated, she said, the employer requirements to find out why.

In addition to legally protected reasons, employees might have general objections come receiving a COVID-19 vaccination that perform not call for a reasonable accommodation. "Employers considering mandating vaccines must give really serious consideration to this issue," stated Brett Coburn, one attorney with Alston & Bird in Atlanta. If a significant portion that the workforce refuses come comply, the employer may be put in the very complicated position of either adhering come the mandate and terminating every one of these employees, or deviating native the mandate for certain employees, i m sorry Coburn said deserve to increase the hazard of discrimination claims.

"Rather than implementing mandates that could lead come such an overwhelming decisions, employers might wish to focus on steps they have the right to take come encourage and also incentivize employee to acquire vaccinated," that said. Because that example, employers might want to:

Develop vaccination education and learning campaigns.Make obtaining the vaccine as straightforward as possible for employees. Cover any type of costs that could be connected with getting the vaccine.Provide incentives to employee who gain vaccinated.Provide paid time off for employee to get the vaccine and recover from any potential side effects.

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Kevin Troutman, one attorney through Fisher Phillips in Houston, also suggested providing incentives before adopting a hardline mandatory vaccination policy.

"Communicate clearly and regularly with employee and help them understand how vaccinations will certainly make because that a much safer workplace," he said. "Lead through example and also ensure that management takes the vaccines first."