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The right and left ventricles the all large mammals space structurally comparable and save on computer the same components (1). The walls of the ventricles space significantly more muscular than those that the atria and also the walls of the left ventricle are significantly thicker than those that the right. Near the apex, the inner wall surfaces of the ventricles have muscular ridges called trabeculae carnae; the level of trabeculation varies in between humans and also animals (3, 9, 10, 11). The ventricular walls likewise have papillary muscle that assistance the atrioventricular valves v the chordae tendineae. The variety of these muscles have the right to vary both within and between species (3). Both ventricles may likewise contain cross-chamber fibrous or muscular bands that typically bring Purkinje fibers. The moderator band is a prominent band within the appropriate ventricle the is usual to humans, dogs, pigs and sheep though its origin and insertion points, and also its structure, have the right to vary between species (3).

You are watching: Muscular ridges on the inner surface of the ventricles are called

Human The trabeculations of the right and left ventricles in the human being heart space both much more numerous and also finer than those checked out in canine, ovine or porcine hearts (3, 8). The moderator band of the best ventricle is usually a free arc in the person heart but can likewise be in the type of a ridge (1). In humans, the moderator tape arises much more apically on the septal wall surface than watched in canine, porcine, or ovine hearts and inserts in ~ the basic of the anterior papillary muscle. Left ventricular bands are additionally typically current in the human being heart (1). Within the appropriate ventricle, human being hearts have actually one well defined anterior papillary muscle, one to three posterior papillary muscles and one to three septal papillary muscles (1). In the left ventricle, human being hearts have actually one to 3 anterior papillary muscles and one or two posterior papillary muscles. The right ventricle inflow street in people is significantly larger 보다 that that the canine, ovine or porcine love (1). The best ventricular outflow tract but is comparable in dimension to the of the canine, ovine and also porcine heart. The left ventricular inflow street of humans is similar in size to ovine and porcine hearts yet is substantially longer than in canine understanding (1). The left ventricular outflow tract of the human heart yet is generally larger than in canine, ovine or porcine mind (1).

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A human being heart reduced coronally to kind an anterosuperior fifty percent (left) and a posteroinferior half (right). The trabeculae carneae in the apex have the right to be checked out here. Notably, they are both an ext numerous and also finer than in the understanding of swine, canines or lamb (3, 8).

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The posterioinferior side of a plastinated human being right ventricle is pictured here. Human hearts may have one to 3 posterior papillary muscles and also one to 3 septal papillary muscles (1). This certain heart has one posterior papillary muscle. Among the heart’s two septal papillary muscle is visible here.

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The anterosuperior next of a plastinated human right ventricle is pictured here. The human heart has actually one well identified anterior papillary muscle and one to 3 septal papillary muscles (1). The heart’s anterior papillary muscle is visible and one the this heart’s 2 septal papillary muscles have the right to be watched here.

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An internal image of a human being right ventricle. Human being hearts have one well characterized anterior papillary muscle top top the totally free wall of the ventricle (1). The countless trabeculae the the person heart are additionally visible (3, 8).

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An internal image of the human being heart appropriate ventricle. People may have actually one to three posterior papillary muscles within the best ventricle (1). This heart’s only posterior papillary muscle and trabeculae carneae have the right to be watched here as well as the chordae tendineae that affix the papillary muscle and also the tricuspid valve.

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An internal image of the human right ventricle. People may have one to 3 septal papillary muscles (1). The septal papillary muscle and the chordae tendineae connecting it to the tricuspid valve’s septal leaflet deserve to be seen.

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An internal photo of the person right ventricle. Visible are the anterior papillary muscle, that chardae tendineae connecting it to the tricuspid valve, the trabeculae carneae and also the moderator band. The moderator tape of humans arises apically ~ above the septal wall and originates at the basic of the anterior papillary muscle (1).

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The posterior side of a plastinated human being left atrium is pictured here. Humans have a solitary anterior papillary muscle and a single posterior papillary muscle in the left ventricle (1). Both the posterior and anterior papillary muscles room visible here.

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A watch of the inside of a human being left ventricle native above. Visible room the anterior papillary muscle, sustaining the anterior leaflet of the mitral valve, the trabeculae carneae and a conduction band.

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A internal photo of the person left ventricle taken from a superior position. The posterior papillary muscle can be seen as well as the chordae tendineae connecting it to the mitral valve.

Canine The trabeculae carneae of the right and left ventricles in the canine heart space both fewer and also coarser contrasted to those viewed in the human being heart (1). Notably, the best ventricle that the canine heart has much more trabeculation contrasted to porcine and also ovine hearts despite (1). However, the left ventricles of this three animals have similar trabeculation (1). A moderator band is present in the right ventricle as a complimentary arching fibrous network that originates at the anterior papillary muscle or septal wall and inserts ~ above the totally free walls that the appropriate ventricle in ~ multiple web page (1). Within the right ventricle, canine hearts deserve to have one or 2 anterior papillary muscles, one to 3 posterior papillary muscles and also one to three or more septal papillary muscles (1). In the left ventricle, the canine heart has a solitary anterior papillary muscle and a solitary posterior papillary muscle. The ideal ventricle inflow tract is significantly much shorter than in humans however is similar in length to ovine and also porcine mind (1). The right ventricular outflow street is comparable in size to those of human, porcine and also ovine hearts. The left ventricle inflow tract of the canine love is significantly much shorter than that of the human heart, but comparable in length to swine and also sheep (1). Likewise, the left ventricular outflow street is significantly smaller than in human beings but comparable in length to swine and sheep.

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A plastinated canine heart cut coronally v the anterior half on the left and also the posterior fifty percent on the right. The canine heart trabeculae carneae deserve to be seen which are coarser than those of humans. Contrasted to swine and also sheep hearts, the ideal ventricle has greater trabeculation despite the left has comparable trabeculation contrasted to these other animals (1).

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The posterior half of a plastinated canine right ventricle is pictured here. Canine hearts have actually one or 2 anterior papillary muscles, one to three posterior papillary muscles and one to three septal papillary muscles supporting the tricuspid valve (1). This certain heart contains one of each papillary muscle. The septal and also posterior papillary muscles space visible here.

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The anterior fifty percent of a plastinated canine ideal ventricle have the right to be seen here. Canine hearts have actually one or 2 anterior papillary muscles, one to three posterior papillary muscles and also one to three septal papillary muscles supporting the tricuspid valve (1). This particular heart has one of each papillary muscle. The anterior papillary muscle is clearly shows here as well as the moderator band, originating ~ above the anterior papillary muscle and inserting at multiple points on the totally free wall.

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A internal snapshot of a canine right ventricle taken with the camera in the best atrium looking inferiorly. Canine hearts have actually one or 2 anterior papillary muscles, one to 3 posterior papillary muscles and one to 3 septal papillary muscles (1). This details heart has a single septal papillary muscle, one anterior papillary muscle and two posterior papillary muscles.

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The trabeculae carneae of a canine heart space pictured here. The trabeculae that canines are fewer and courser contrasted to humans however are much more abundant in the right ventricle contrasted to ovine and swine mind (1).

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The posterior half of a plastinated canine left ventricle is pictured here. There is one anterior and also one posterior papillary muscle in the left ventricle the canines (1). The posterior papillary muscle, supporting the mitral valve, and the trabeculae carneae are additionally visible. Compared to humans, the trabeculae of canines are fewer and also courser (1).

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The anterior fifty percent of a plastinated canine left ventricle is pictured here. Over there is one anterior and one posterior papillary muscle in the left ventricle that canines (1).The anterior papillary muscle supporting the mitral valve is visible as well as the trabeculae. Contrasted to humans, the trabeculae that canines are fewer and also courser (1).

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A inner view the a canine left ventricle through the camera positioned in the left atrium looking inferiorly. There is one anterior and also one posterior papillary muscle in the left ventricle the canines (1). Both papillary muscles are visible here and also the trabeculae carneae which space fewer and coarser compared to people (1)

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A closer look at the left ventricular apex of a canine heart. The trabeculeae that dogs, choose sheep and also pigs, room courser contrasted to those in person hearts. Likewise visible room fibrous bands that the left ventricle.

Ovine The trabeculae carneae of the right and also left ventricles in the ovine heart room fewer and coarser compared to those watched in the person heart (3, 8). Moderator bands are existing in the best ventricle as a totally free arching muscular framework that originates ~ above or close to the septal papillary muscle and inserts in ~ the human body or head the the anterior papillary muscle (1). In the right ventricle, the ovine heart has a single anterior papillary muscle, one or sometimes two posterior papillary muscle and one or two septal papillary muscles (1). In the left ventricle, ovine hearts have actually a single anterior papillary muscle and also one or sometimes two posterior papillary muscles. The best ventricle inflow tract is significantly shorter compared come humans however is similar in size to canine and porcine hearts (1). The appropriate ventricle outflow tract is similar in length to human, porcine and also canine hearts. The left ventricle inflow tract is similar in length to human, canine and porcine mind (1). The left ventricle outflow street of the ovine love is significantly much shorter than the human being heart however is similar to the various other animals' hearts.

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A plastinated ovine heart reduced coronally, creating a anterior half (left) and also a posterior fifty percent (right). The papillary muscles, trabeculae carneae and also overall structure of the right and also left ventricles deserve to be seen. The trabeculae carneae room noticeably fewer and courser contrasted to those in person hearts.

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The posterior fifty percent of the best ventricle in a plastinated ovine heart. Ovine hearts have actually one anterior papillary muscle, one or 2 posterior papillary muscles and also one or two septal papillary muscles (1).This heart’s one posterior and also one anterior muscles space visible, supporting the tricuspid valve with the chordate tendineae. The trabeculae carneae are noticeably fewer and also courser contrasted to person hearts (3, 8).

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The anterior half of the ideal ventricle that a plastinated ovine heart. Ovine hearts have one anterior papillary muscle, one or 2 posterior papillary muscles and one or 2 septal papillary muscle (1). This heart’s septal papillary muscle is visible, supporting the tricuspid valve with its chordae tendineae. The moderator band, originating at the base of the septal papillary muscle and inserting in ~ the base of the anterior papillary muscle, is additionally visible.

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A internal photo of a ovine appropriate ventricle, regarded superiorly. Ovine hearts have one anterior papillary muscle, one or two posterior papillary muscles and also one or 2 septal papillary muscle (1). The heart’s anterior papillary muscle and its one posterior papillary muscle room visible connecting come the tricuspid valve via the chordae tendineae. The moderator band is also visible, originating in ~ the basic of the septal papillary muscle and also inserting close to the anterior papillary muscle.

A closer look at the apex that a ovine appropriate ventricle. The trabeculae carneae are visible and also are remarkable fewer and courser compared to the understanding of humans.

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A exceptional view that the septal papillary muscle and also moderator band in a ovine heart. The moderator tape originates in the septal wall by the septal papillary muscle, the cross the ideal ventricle as a totally free arc, and inserts near the anterior papillary muscle.

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The posterior half of the left ventricle the a plastinated ovine heart. Ovine hearts have a solitary anterior papillary muscle and may have actually one or two posterior papillary muscle in the left ventricle (1). This details heart has actually one posterior papillary muscle, clearly shows here, sustaining the mitral valve v its chordae tendineae.

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The anterior half of the left atrium that a plastinated ovine heart. Ovine hearts have one anterior papillary muscle and also may have actually one or two posterior papillary muscle (1). The anterior papillary muscle and its chordate tendineae sustaining the mitral valve deserve to be seen.

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A interior view of the ovine left ventricle. The camera is positioned in the left atrium and also is looking inferiorly right into the ventricle. The ovine heart has actually one anterior papillary muscle and one or two posterior papillary muscles supporting the mitral valve (1). This particular heart has one anterior papillary muscle and one papillary muscle.

A see of the apex in ~ the left ventricle of a ovine heart. The understanding of sheep, favor the other pets here, have much coarser trabeculae carneae than the mind of humans. Likewise visible room the conduction bands that help propagate the signal because that contraction v the left ventricle.

Porcine The trabeculae carneae that the right and left ventricles in the porcine heart room both fewer and also coarser contrasted to those watched in the person heart (3, 8). The moderator tape is current in the right ventricle as a totally free arching framework that originates top top or close to the septal papillary muscle and also inserts right into the human body or head of the anterior papillary muscle (1). In the best ventricle, the porcine heart has a single anterior papillary muscle, one to 3 posterior papillary muscles and one to 3 septal papillary muscles (1). In the left ventricle, the porcine heart has a solitary anterior papillary muscle and a solitary posterior papillary muscle. The ideal ventricle inflow tract in the porcine love is significantly much shorter than the human being heart yet is similar in dimension to canine and also ovine understanding (1). The appropriate ventricle outflow tract however is comparable in size to the human being heart and to canine and ovine hearts. The left ventricle inflow street is comparable in size to human, canine and also ovine hearts (1). The left ventricle outflow tract is shorter than in the human heart but similar in length compared to canine and ovine understanding (1).

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A plastinated porcine heart reduced coronally right into a anterior fifty percent (left) and also a posterior fifty percent (right). The trabeculae carneae, papillary muscles and overall framework of the right and left ventricle can be seen. The trabeculae carneae that swine hearts space noticeably fewer and also coarser contrasted to human beings (1).

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The posterior half of the best ventricle of a plastinated porcine heart. Swine have actually a solitary anterior papillary muscle, one to three posterior papillary muscles and one to 3 septal papillary muscle in the ideal ventricle (1). This specific heart has actually one posterior papillary muscle and also one anterior papillary muscle clearly shows here.

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The anterior half of the appropriate ventricle of a plastinated porcine heart. Swine have a single anterior papillary muscle, one to 3 posterior papillary muscles and also one to three septal papillary muscle in the right ventricle (1). This particular heart has actually one septal papillary muscle and part of that one anterior papillary muscle clearly shows here. Despite the moderator band has been broken in this heart, the origin on the septal papillary muscle and also the insertion ~ above the anterior papillary muscle space visible.

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A interior view of a porcine right ventricle. The camera is positioned in the best atrium and is feather inferiorly right into the ventricle. The best ventricle of the swine heart has actually one anterior papillary muscle, one to 3 posterior papillary muscles and one to three septal papillary muscles (1). This details heart has actually one anterior, one posterior and also one septal papillary muscle. Also visible is the moderator band which is existing in swine hearts as a complimentary arching structure that originates on or close to the septal papillary muscle and inserts ~ above the anterior papillary muscle (1).

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A interior view the the apex the a porcine best ventricle. The trabeculae carneae of the swine heart, like the mind of dogs and sheep, are coarser 보다 in the understanding of human beings (1).

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The posterior fifty percent of the left ventricle of a plastinated porcine heart. Swine have one anterior papillary muscle and also one posterior papillary muscle sustaining the mitral valve (1). The posterior papillary muscle is visible here.

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The anterior fifty percent of the left ventricle that a plastinated porcine heart. Porcine hearts have actually one anterior papillary muscle and also one posterior papillary muscle supporting the mitral valve (1). The anterior papillary muscle is clearly shows here.

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A inner view the the left ventricle that a porcine heart. The camera is positioned simply inferior come the mitral valve and looking inferiorly. Swine hearts have actually one anterior papillary muscle and one posterior papillary muscle in your left ventricle both that which room visible here (1).

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An internal image of the apex that a porcine heart. The trabeculae carneae in pigs, similar to the understanding of swine and also canine, are lot coarser 보다 in human being hearts (1). Additionally visible are two fibrous bands within the left ventricle.