Learning Objectives

Upon effective completion of this chapter, you will be may be to:

understand the history and breakthrough of networking technologies;define the crucial terms associated with networking technologies;understand the prominence of broadband technologies; anddescribe business networking.

You are watching: ________ permits two or more people to communicate over the internet in real time.

Please note, there is an updated edition of this book available at https://opentextbook.site. If you space not forced to usage this edition because that a course, you might want to inspect it out.

Introduction

In the early days the computing, computers were watched as devices for do calculations, save on computer data, and automating business processes. However, as the gadgets evolved, that became evident that numerous of the attributes of telecommunications could be combined into the computer. During the 1980s, numerous organizations started combining their once-separate telecommunications and information-systems departments right into an information technology, or IT, department. This ability for computer systems to communicate with one an additional and, maybe much more importantly, come facilitate communication in between individuals and groups, has actually been vital factor in the development of computer over the previous several decades.

Computer networking really started in the 1960s v the bear of the Internet, together we’ll see below. However, if the Internet and also web to be evolving, this firm networking was additionally taking form in the kind of neighborhood area networks and also client-server computing. In the 1990s, as soon as the internet came that age, web technologies started to pervade all locations of the organization. Now, v the web a an international phenomenon, it would be unthinkable to have a computer that did no include interactions capabilities. This chapter will evaluation the different technologies that have been put in location to permit this interactions revolution.

A Brief background of the Internet

In the Beginning: ARPANET

The story the the Internet, and networking in general, deserve to be traced back to the so late 1950s. The us was in the depths of the Cold War v the USSR, and each nation closely watched the various other to recognize which would acquire a army or intelligence advantage. In 1957, the Soviets surprised the US through the start of Sputnik, propelling us into the space age. In response to Sputnik, the united state Government created the progressed Research Projects firm (ARPA), whose initial function was come ensure the the us was not surprised again. It was from ARPA, now called DARPA (Defense Advanced Research tasks Agency), the the Internet very first sprang.

ARPA was the facility of computing research in the 1960s, however there was simply one problem: countless of the computers could no talk to every other. In 1968, ARPA sent a request for proposals because that a communication an innovation that would enable different computer systems located around the nation to be combined together right into one network. Twelve carriers responded to the request, and also a company named Bolt, Beranek, and also Newman (BBN) winner the contract. They began work right away and also were able to complete the job just one year later: in September, 1969, the ARPANET was turned on. The an initial four nodes to be at UCLA, Stanford, MIT, and the college of Utah.

The Internet and the World large Web

Over the following decade, the ARPANET grew and gained popularity. During this time, various other networks also came right into existence. Various organizations were connected to various networks. This resulted in a problem: the networks might not talk to each other. Every network provided its very own proprietary language, or protocol (see sidebar for the definition of protocol), come send information earlier and forth. This difficulty was solved by the creation of transmission regulate protocol/Internet protocol (TCP/IP). TCP/IP to be designed to allow networks running on different protocols to have actually an intermediary protocol the would permit them to communicate. Therefore as long as your network sustained TCP/IP, friend could interact with every one of the various other networks to run TCP/IP. TCP/IP quickly came to be the standard protocol and allowed networks to connect with every other. It is from this breakthrough the we very first got the ax Internet, which simply means “an interconnected network the networks.”

Sidebar: An web Vocabulary Lesson

Networking interaction is full of some very technical concepts based on some straightforward principles. Discover the terms below and also you’ll have the ability to hold your own in a conversation around the Internet.

Packet: The fundamental unit of data sent over the Internet. When a maker intends to send a blog post to another an equipment (for example, your computer sends a request to YouTube to open up a video), it breaks the blog post down into smaller pieces, dubbed packets. Every packet has the sender’s address, the destination address, a sequence number, and also a piece of the in its entirety message to be sent.Hub: A simple network device that connect other gadgets to the network and also sends packets to all the devices associated to it.Bridge: A network maker that connects two networks together and also only enables packets v that are needed.Switch: A network device that associate multiple gadgets together and also filters packets based upon their location within the associated devices. Router: A machine that receives and analyzes packets and then paths them towards their destination. In some cases, a router will send a packet to an additional router; in various other cases, it will send it straight to the destination.DNS: DNS stands for “domain name system,” i m sorry acts together the brochure on the Internet. As soon as a inquiry to access a device with a domain name is given, a DNS server is queried. It return the IP deal with of the maker requested, permitting for suitable routing.Protocol: In computer networking, a protocol is the set of rule that enable two (or more) gadgets to exchange information back and forth throughout the network.

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Worldwide net use over 24-hour period (click to go to website of origin). (Public Domain. Courtesy that the internet Census 2012 project.)

As us moved into the 1980s, computers were added to the web at an enhancing rate. These computers were mainly from government, academic, and research organizations. Much to the surprised of the engineers, the at an early stage popularity of the web was driven by the usage of digital mail (see sidebar below).

Using the web in these beforehand days was no easy. In order to accessibility information on another server, you had to know just how to type in the commands necessary to access it, as well as know the surname of that device. The all readjusted in 1990, as soon as Tim Berners-Lee introduced his World wide Web project, which provided an easy means to navigate the net through the use of connected text (hypertext). The World wide Web acquired even more steam v the relax of the Mosaic browser in 1993, which permitted graphics and text to be linked together as a way to existing information and navigate the Internet. The Mosaic internet browser took turn off in popularity and was soon superseded by Netscape Navigator, the an initial commercial web browser, in 1994. The Internet and also the World broad Web were currently poised for growth. The chart below shows the growth in individuals from the early days till now.

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Growth of web usage, 1995–2012 (click come enlarge). Data taken indigenous InternetWorldStats.com.

The Dot-Com Bubble

In the 1980s and also early 1990s, the web was being managed by the nationwide Science structure (NSF). The NSF had restricted commercial ventures on the Internet, which supposed that no one could buy or market anything online. In 1991, the NSF moved its function to three other organizations, thus getting the US federal government out the direct control over the Internet and also essentially opening up business online.

This new commercialization of the web led come what is now recognized as the dot-com bubble. A frenzy of invest in new dot-com carriers took ar in the so late 1990s, running up the stock industry to brand-new highs ~ above a everyday basis. This invest bubble was propelled by the reality that investors knew the online commerce would adjust everything. Unfortunately, plenty of of these brand-new companies had bad business models and ended increase with little to present for all of the funds that were invested in them. In 2000 and also 2001, the balloon burst and many the these brand-new companies went the end of business. Plenty of companies additionally survived, consisting of the still-thriving Amazon (started in 1994) and also eBay (1995). After the dot-com bubble burst, a new reality became clear: in order to success online, e-business service providers would require to build real business models and show the they can survive financially utilizing this new technology.

Web 2.0

In the first few years of the World large Web, creating and putting increase a website forced a specific collection of knowledge: you had actually to know how to set up a server top top the World large Web, how to obtain a domain name, just how to write net pages in HTML, and how come troubleshoot miscellaneous technical problems as they came up. Someone that did these tasks for a website became known as a webmaster.

As the web obtained in popularity, that became much more and much more apparent that those that did not have actually the an abilities to it is in a webmaster still wanted to develop online content and also have their very own piece of the web. This require was met with brand-new technologies that noted a website framework for those that wanted to placed content online. Blogger and also Wikipedia are examples of these early on Web 2.0 applications, which enabled anyone v something come say a place to go and say it, there is no the require for expertise HTML or web-server technology.

Starting in the early on 2000s, internet 2.0 applications started a second bubble the optimism and investment. It appeared that everyone want their very own blog or photo-sharing site. Right here are some of the carriers that come of age during this time: MySpace (2003), Photobucket (2003), Flickr (2004), facebook (2004), WordPress (2005), Tumblr (2006), and also Twitter (2006). The ultimate indication that net 2.0 had taken host was once Time magazine named “You” the “Person the the Year” in 2006.

Sidebar: E-mail Is the “Killer” application for the Internet

When the an individual computer was created, it was a an excellent little toy for modern technology hobbyists and armchair programmers. As shortly as the spreadsheet to be invented, however, businesses take it notice, and also the remainder is history. The spreadsheet was the killer application for the personal computer: world bought PCs just so they can run spreadsheets.

The internet was initially designed as a means for scientists and researchers come share information and also computing power amongst themselves. However, as soon as electronic mail was invented, it began driving need for the Internet. This wasn’t what the developers had actually in mind, but it turned the end that world connecting to world was the killer app for the Internet.

We are seeing this again this day with society networks, particularly Facebook. Plenty of who weren’t encouraged to have actually an digital presence currently feel left out without a on facebook account. The connections made in between people using internet 2.0 applications prefer Facebook on their an individual computer or smartphone is driving expansion yet again.

Sidebar: The Internet and also the World wide Web room Not the exact same Thing

Many times, the state “Internet” and “World vast Web,” or also just “the web,” are offered interchangeably. But really, lock are not the same thing at all! The internet is an interconnected network of networks. Plenty of services run throughout the Internet: electronic mail, voice and also video, document transfers, and, yes, the World wide Web.

The World vast Web is just one piece of the Internet. That is comprised of net servers that have actually HTML pages that space being regarded on gadgets with web browsers. That is really the simple.

The expansion of Broadband

In the early on days the the Internet, most access was done via a modem over an analog call line. A modem (short for “modulator-demodulator”) was associated to the incoming phone line and also a computer system in bespeak to attach you come a network. Speeds were measured in bits-per-second (bps), with speeds farming from 1200 bps to 56,000 bps over the years. Connection to the web via these modems is referred to as dial-up access. Dial-up was an extremely inconvenient since it tied increase the phone call line. As the web became much more and more interactive, dial-up additionally hindered usage, as customers wanted come transfer an ext and an ext data. As a suggest of reference, downloading a common 3.5 mb track would take it 24 minutes at 1200 bps and 2 minute at 28,800 bps.

A broadband link is identified as one that has speeds the at the very least 256,000 bps, though many connections this particular day are lot faster, measure up in numerous bits per second (megabits or mbps) or even billions (gigabits). For the home user, a broadband link is usually achieved via the cable television lines or phone present (DSL). Both cable and DSL have comparable prices and speeds, though each individual may uncover that one is far better than the other for their certain area. Speeds for cable and DSL have the right to vary during different times that the work or week, depending on how much data traffic is being used. In more remote areas, wherein cable and phone companies carry out not administer access, house Internet connections have the right to be make via satellite. The average home broadband speed is anywhere between 3 mbps and also 30 mbps. At 10 mbps, downloading and install a common 3.5 mb tune would take less than a second. For businesses that require much more bandwidth and reliability, telecommunications service providers can provide other options, such together T1 and also T3 lines.

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Growth the broadband usage (Source: Pew Internet and American Life project Surveys)

Broadband access is important since it impacts how the net is used. As soon as a ar has access to broadband, it enables them come interact an ext online and also increases the consumption of digital tools overall. Accessibility to broadband is now considered a an easy human ideal by the joined Nations, as declared in their 2011 statement:

“Broadband innovations are essentially transforming the method we live,” the Broadband Commission because that Digital Development, set up last year by the UN Educational scientific and cultural Organization (UNESCO) and the UN global Telecommunications Union (ITU), said in issuing “The Broadband Challenge” at a leadership summit in Geneva.

“It is critical that no one be excluded indigenous the new worldwide knowledge cultures we are building. We believe that interaction is not just a human need – the is a right.”<1>

Wireless Networking

Today us are offered to gift able to access the net wherever us go. Our smartphones can access the Internet; Starbucks gives wireless “hotspots” because that our laptop computers or iPads. This wireless technologies have actually made web access much more convenient and have made gadgets such together tablets and laptops much an ext functional. Let’s examine a couple of of these wireless technologies.

Wi-Fi

Wi-Fi is a technology that take away an web signal and also converts it right into radio waves. These radio waves deserve to be choose up within a radius of about 65 feet by gadgets with a wireless adapter. Several Wi-Fi specifications have actually been arisen over the years, beginning with 802.11b (1999), complied with by the 802.11g specification in 2003 and also 802.11n in 2009. Each new specification enhanced the rate and range of Wi-Fi, allowing for more uses. One of the primary locations where Wi-Fi is being supplied is in the home. House users room purchasing Wi-Fi routers, connecting them to your broadband connections, and also then connecting multiple gadgets via Wi-Fi.

Mobile Network

As the cellphone has evolved into the smartphone, the desire for Internet accessibility on these devices has caused data networks being consisted of as part of the mobile phone call network. While web connections were technically available earlier, it to be really v the release of the 3G networks in 2001 (2002 in the US) that smartphones and also other cellular gadgets could accessibility data indigenous the Internet. This brand-new capability drive the industry for brand-new and more powerful smartphones, such together the iPhone, presented in 2007. In 2011, wireless carriers started offering 4G data speeds, providing the moving networks the very same speeds that customers were supplied to gaining via their residence connection.

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Sidebar: Why Doesn’t mine Cellphone job-related When I take trip Abroad?

As mobile phone technologies have evolved, companies in different countries have liked different interaction standards for your mobile call networks. In the US, both of the two completing standards exist: GSM (used through AT&T and also T-Mobile) and CDMA (used by the other major carriers). Each standard has actually its pros and also cons, however the bottom line is that phones making use of one traditional cannot conveniently switch to the other. In the US, this is not a big deal due to the fact that mobile networks exist to support both standards. Yet when you travel to other countries, you will discover that many of them use GSM networks, with the one large exception being Japan, which has actually standardized on CDMA. The is possible for a mobile phone utilizing one type of network to switch to the other form of network by switching out the sim card, i beg your pardon controls your access to the cell phone network. However, this will not work in every cases. If you room traveling abroad, that is always best to consult through your mobile provider to recognize the best way to access a mobile network.