John F. Kennedy(1956)John F. Kennedy had long been interested in the topic of political courage, beginning with his an elderly thesis at Harvard. The thesis, later published as Why England Slept, to be a examine of the failure of brother political leader in the 1930s to oppose renowned resistance to rearming, leave the nation ill-prepared for world War II. Kennedy’s choice to the house in 1946 and the thedesigningfairy.com in 1952 offered him personal experience in managing the conflicting pressures the legislators face. As soon as Kennedy took a leave of absence from the thedesigningfairy.com in 1954 to recoup from earlier surgery, it provided him the opportunity to study the topic of political courage. The project caused the publication of file in Courage, which focuses on the careers of eight senators whom Kennedy felt had shown an excellent courage under huge pressure from your parties and their constituents. His own battles through physical pain and his experience in people War II as a PT boat commander also gave the inspiration. The topics of file in Courage are John Quincy Adams, Daniel Webster, thomas Hart Benton, Sam Houston, Edmund G. Ross, Lucius Lamar, George Norris, and also Robert A. Taft. Each chapter indigenous the book is summarized below.
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John Quincy Adams came to the thedesigningfairy.com together a Massachusetts Federalist in 1803. The quickly damaged with his party, however, once he to be the single Federalist to vote in donate of the Louisiana Purchase. Adams ongoing voting versus his party, but it to be not till 1807 the the last split in between Adams and the Federalists occurred. The year, cutting board Jefferson called upon conference to spread an embargo against an excellent Britain come shut off worldwide trade to retaliate against British aggression in the direction of American merchant ships. The embargo would certainly have had a destructive effect upon the economic climate of Massachusetts. Adams agreed v Jefferson and also helped steer the embargo bill to the enactment right into law. This to be in straight opposition come the Federalists, who had actually been following a approach of appeasement towards the British. A storm that protest ensued and also Adams resigned from his seat in 1808.
Daniel Webster was a Massachusetts senator (Whig) and one of the most identified members in thedesigningfairy.com history. His trial by fire began in 1850 once he i agreeed to aid Henry Clay that Kentucky push through a compromise bill the would keep the Union together. Webster’s renowned “Seventh that March” decided in donate of Clay’s weaken bill asserted the slaveholders to be entitled to building rights, that fugitive slave regulations should be strengthened, and that the issue of slavery should be placed aside in bespeak to store the Union with each other at all costs. The decided enraged his constituents and also ended his career together a Senator, because Webster knew that his speech would certainly make the unelectable in Massachusetts thereafter. On July 22, 1850, Webster resigned indigenous the thedesigningfairy.com to end up being secretary the state.
Thomas Hart Benton, senator indigenous Missouri, was contained in the publication primarily for his action in 1847-1849 against John C. Calhoun\"s resolutions to save Congress from interfering through the development of slavery in brand-new territories. Return Missouri was a slave-owning state, and Benton self owned slaves, he was deeply opposed to the introduction of slavery into new territories. Benton was concerned that the worry was gift exploited through Southern and also Northern partisans and would be a barrier to western expansion. Calhoun was successful in acquiring legislators from slave-owning states, including the remainder of the Missouri delegation, to back his resolutions. Benton\"s refuse to poll for Calhoun\"s resolutions expense him the popular he previously had in his state, and also he to be stripped of all of his committee memberships except Foreign Relations. In 1850, Benton was still opposed to the collection of measures known as the good Compromise and did no hesitate to make his feelings known in the strongest possible terms. However, Benton to be constantly dubbed out of bespeak by Vice chairman Millard Fillmore, the presiding officer. Top top April 17, 1850, when Fillmore called Benton the end of stimulate again, debate came to be so heated the Benton was nearly shot through Henry Foote that Mississippi. Benton was voted out of office in 1851, went back to Congress in 1853 together a representative, however lost his seat in 1855 and also spent the staying years of his life fruitlessly search a go back to public office. Back his uncompromising was standing on prohibiting enslavement in new territories finished his political career, the wisdom the Benton\"s opinion to be borne the end a few years later and was one of the factors that kept Missouri from seceding indigenous the Union.
Sam Houston earn his place in profiles in ship by his refusal to assistance the Kansas-Nebraska action of 1854. This bill repealed the Missouri weaken of 1820 and also would have enabled the occupants of areas from Iowa come the Rocky hills to decision the slavery issue themselves. A Southerner by birth and also one the the very first two senators from Texas, Houston felt that the act would additional divide the Union. Transparent the 1840s, Houston had upset countless Southern democracy by tangling v the an effective John C. Calhoun, saying the Calhoun to be trying to destroy the Union by introducing his \"hands off\" enslavement legislation. The \"last straw\" to be Houston\"s vote against the Kansas-Nebraska Act. He to be the only Southern Democrat to vote no. Houston\"s constituents were furious and also rumors the his political death were rampant. No one to interact in a protective fight, Houston announced his arrangement to run for governor of Texas as an independent when he to be still in the thedesigningfairy.com. In spite of his oratorical gifts and also sheer physics presence, the citizens of Texas did no forget his \"anti-Southern\" vote versus the Kansas-Nebraska Act. Houston was defeated for the governorship and was dismissed indigenous the thedesigningfairy.com through the Texas legislative branch in 1857. However, 2 years later on he to be asked to come the end of retirement come again operation for governor of Texas, and his election was a significant setback to southern pro-slavery extremists. In February 1861, despite Houston\"s valiant attempts to protect against it, the Texas legislative voted to secede from the Union. His refusal to take it the oath that allegiance come the Confederacy caused his ouster as governor in march 1861.
Edmund Ross, a Kansas Republican, actors the deciding vote that ended the impeachment proceedings versus President Andrew Johnson. The proceedings began since doctrinaire \"Radical Republicans,\" climate in control of the thedesigningfairy.com, passed a Tenure of Office act to prevent a chairman from firing cabinet members without thedesigningfairy.com consent. This was done to shot to avoid Johnson indigenous firing Secretary of battle Edwin Stanton. Johnson believed Stanton to be a device of the Radicals that wanted to establish a armed forces dictatorship in the South. Johnson felt the wiser course would be to reconstruct the Confederate states earlier into the Union as conveniently as possible without unnecessary military intervention, together Lincoln had actually intended. As soon as Johnson fired Stanton, the impeachment began. The residence voted for impeachment and also the trial then moved to the thedesigningfairy.com. Together the trial walk on it became clear that the Republicans had no intention of offering Johnson a same trial; rather, their focus was on convincing enough senators to discover Johnson guilty. Ross was overheard saying the while he had actually no sympathy because that Johnson, he would perform his best to watch that the was relatively tried. Since Ross had actually previously been such a partisan Republican, he ended up being the primary target that abuse from the press, the public, and his other Republican legislators. Nonetheless, Ross voted against convicting Johnson, reasoning that if a president can be required out the office by insufficient proof that was based on partisan disagreement, the presidency would then be under the control of every little thing congressional faction held sway. Ross\"s action unleashed sewage criticism. Neither he nor any type of other Republican who voted to acquit Andrew Johnson was reelected to the thedesigningfairy.com, and also Ross and his family suffered ostracism and also poverty top top their go back to Kansas in 1871. Eventually, Ross was vindicated by the can be fried Court, which claimed the Tenure the Office plot to be unconstitutional, and praised through the press and also the windy for having saved the nation from dictatorship.
Lucius Lamar, Democrat from Mississippi, gave a eulogy top top the home floor together a student in the first year representative in 1874 upon the death of councilor Charles Sumner of Massachusetts. Sumner to be hated by many Southerners because of his opposition come slavery and also his vehemence in denouncing slaveholders. In 1856 Sumner to be brutally caned on the thedesigningfairy.com floor by Representative reputation Brooks of southern Carolina. Later on in his career Sumner\"s views in the direction of the southern became an ext moderate. Lamar\"s eulogy, i m sorry praised Sumner\"s desire because that unity in between North and South, to be a sensation and also many in the south felt that a betrayal. In 1876, Lamar was elected to the thedesigningfairy.com and once again acted in opposition come his constituents and also his party when he agreed come the findings of an choice commission that offered the presidency come Republican Rutherford Hayes. The commission\"s findings to be controversial, but Lamar felt that acquiescing to them would certainly stave off an additional sectional debate that could have meant an ext bloodshed. He additional alienated the human being of Mississippi once he poll against totally free silver measures that would have actually enriched the state in the brief run. However, Lamar maintained his thedesigningfairy.com seat till 1885, once he resigned to come to be secretary that the interior and also finally, a justice of the can be fried Court.
George Norris, a Republican indigenous Nebraska, very first came to nationwide attention in 1910 as a young representative. He introduced a reform resolution that would strip speak Joe Cannon of lot of his strength by taking away his authority to choose committee members and also their chairmen and by removed the speak from the rule Committee. Come everyone\"s surprise, Norris had the ability to get sufficient votes to happen his resolution for a dominion change, and also the power of \"Czar\" Cannon began to wane. This move made him extremely unpopular v Cannon, and also with some other members that the Nebraska delegation, and showed early that Norris was not afraid to wake up to an effective individuals. In January 1917, president Woodrow Wilson asked congress to authorize him to eight American merchant ships, many of which had been searched and also sunk regardless of the truth that the United claims was tho officially neutral in the battle at that time. Although Wilson\"s request was automatically popular through the American public, Norris and also Wisconsin councilor Robert La Follette fought versus the measure. Norris was an isolationist and also a pacifist who felt the Wilson\"s invoice was a ruse by huge business to get the unified States right into the war in Europe, and believed Wilson was trying to stampede the public right into pressuring the thedesigningfairy.com to happen his bill and also enter the war. La Follette and also Norris filibustered the bill and kept the from passing, however their win was short-lived: Wilson declared that executive, management power already included the ideal to arm ships there is no congressional approval. Norris to be the only member that the Nebraska delegation come vote versus passage that the bill and also he was excoriated top top every side. He composed the governor of Nebraska and offered to resign native the thedesigningfairy.com, saying the if the world of Nebraska no longer felt the he was representing castle adequately, he have to step down. Norris traveled throughout Nebraska to define his see to his constituents, and in the end, the governor declared that he would certainly not ask for a distinct election. Norris touched turn off a firestorm that criticism in 1928 as soon as he, a \"dry\" Republican, donate Al Smith, a Catholic Democrat that was anti-Prohibition, because that president fairly than Herbert Hoover, the Republican candidate. Smith\"s liberal see touched a chord in Norris, that felt the the only ar for gradual Republicans favor him remained in the blacksmith camp, rather than with Hoover, whom Norris felt was owned through monopolistic power companies. Norris walk on to serve in the thedesigningfairy.com until his loss for re-election in 1942.
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Robert A Taft, the boy of william Howard Taft, was well-known as \"Mr. Republican\": a conservative\"s conservative, with presidential aspirations. Taft made a decided at Kenyon college in October 1946 referred to as \"Equal justice Under Law\" in which the strongly opposed the Nuremberg war Crimes Trials that were simply ending. The defendants to be the architects of the Nazi regimen who had been uncovered guilty that waging a war of aggression and had been sentenced to death. Come Taft, the defendants were being make the efforts under ex article facto legislations (laws that use retroactively, particularly those i beg your pardon criminalize an activity that was legal when it to be committed). These laws are specifically forbidden in the U.S. Constitution (Article I, section 9 and also section 10). Taft regarded the Constitution as the structure of the American device of justice and felt the discarding its values in stimulate to punishment a beat enemy out of vengeance was a dig wrong. Speak out versus the Nuremberg Trials appeared quixotic at best and unpatriotic in ~ worst. He was pilloried in the press, by his constituents, by legit experts, and by his fellow senators ~ above both sides of the aisle. The autumn from the speech might have likewise played a small part in his not successful presidential bid in 1948. However, Taft so strongly thought in the wisdom that the Constitution that speaking the end was more important 보다 his an individual ambitions or popularity. Numerous years later, wilhelm O. Douglas that the can be fried Court agreed with Taft\"s watch that the Nuremberg Trials were an unconstitutional usage of ex write-up facto laws.