Political victory in 1875 lugged Hayes national attention as a possible presidential candidate in 1876. Not only did the governor-elect consider the possibility in his diary, but friends likewise started to work-related for his nomination. In the fall of 1875, he visited Pennsylvania on an extended political trip, and in January 1876, Senator john Sherman and William Henry smith publicly began to promote him together the state’s favorite son. On march 29, the Ohio Republican Convention unanimously endorsed their governor for President. In ~ the 1876 Republican nationwide Convention organized in Cincinnati, governor Hayes was among nine candidates vying for the height spot top top the ticket. His advisers permit the pressures of Benjamin H. Bristow lead the fight against the pre-convention favorite, James G. Blaine. This strategy permitted Hayes to edge Maine’s “Plumed Knight” on the saturday ballot together a damage candidate. To balance the ticket, the convention selected william A. Wheeler, a brand-new York Congressman, as the party’s vice-presidential choice.

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In his letter that acceptance, branch Hayes emphasize the need for civil company reform in the federal government, reconciliation between the North and the South, sound currency, and also a single presidential term. With remarkable confidence in his party’s prospects, the Ohio governor continued to be in Columbus performing his normal duties and also keeping in contact with both national and local Republican leaders. Constant with the see expressed in his composed statement, he took a solid stand against soliciting campaign contributions indigenous party regulars who held federal government jobs. Although this view alienated certain Stalwarts, the appealed come reform-minded citizens. The candidate kept both his sound money principles and his temperance beliefs during the campaign, however refrained from utilizing them as major issues in order not to violation potential Greenbackers and anti-prohibitionists.

In so late October, Hayes tape-recorded in his diary his worry over a disputed election. The November results proved that this fears were well-founded. Return the democratic candidates, Samuel J. Tilden and Thomas A. Hendricks, appeared to get a plurality of the renowned vote in excess of 250,000, the Republicans challenged the electoral counting for nineteen votes in three disputed states, Florida, Louisiana, and South Carolina. The democracy responded by daunting one of Oregon’s electoral votes. The orgasm to one of the strangest and also most controversial elections in our nation’s history came as soon as a special commission, created by Congress because that deciding the vote, solved to award every the challenged electoral votes come Hayes.


The margin of success was through one electoral vote, 185 come 184, and the final an outcome was announced only two days prior to Inauguration Day. Governor Hayes to be en route to Washington when he got the news. At the urging of the Secretary that State, Hamilton Fish, he took the oath that office indigenous Chief righteousness Morrison R. Waite in ~ a exclusive dinner party offered by the sponsor on march 3 come forestallthe risks of an interregnum. Due to the fact that the classic inaugural job of march 4 fell on a Sunday, Hayes held the public inauguration on Monday, march 5, top top the steps of the Capitol. Before a group of 30,000 spectators he ended up being the nineteenth chairman of the joined States.

Although Hayes populated the executive, management Mansion for only 4 years, 1877-1881, his Presidency signaled an end to the excesses the the approve era. He complied with his maxim, “He serves his party best, that serves his nation best.” In plenty of respects the brand-new administration reversed the erosion that executive strength which had emerged during the Johnson and Grant years. In advancing the cause of civil organization reform and also adhering to campaign promises the a solitary term, Hayes helped to gain back people’s to trust in the chief of State. The chairman jealously guarded the executive, management appointment and also pardoning prerogatives in bitter clashes with the Senate. His reasonably successful usage of the veto, especially versus legislative riders to appropriation bills, enhanced the power and also prestige of the Presidency. Resistance to senatorial pressures for the appointment of party favorites permitted Hayes to rally a distinguished and capable cabinet. His original cabinet officers consisted of Charles Devens, attorney General; wilhelm M. Evarts, Secretary that State; David M. Key, Postmaster General; George W. McCrary, Secretary that War; man Sherman, Secretary of the Treasury; Carl Schurz, Secretary of the Interior; and Richard W. Thompson, Secretary that the Navy. Nathan Goff, Jr., Horace Maynard, and also Alexander Ramsey later on joined the Hayes room holding the respective write-ups as Secretary that the Navy, Postmaster General, and also Secretary of War.

During his hatchet of office Hayes no only had actually to contend with a hostile and also largely democratic Congress, but likewise had to face questions concerning the legitimacy of his title to the presidency. The many important an obstacle came indigenous the Potter commission of 1878. The President stayed supremely confident of his position, and also just as he expected, the examination boomeranged ~ above its autonomous investigators. Wholesale democratic frauds to be revealed and published in the push in the kind of decoded cipher telegrams. The President understood the project of 1880 together a final vindication, because the democrats passed over governor Tilden; and the Republican victor, James Garfield, had actually been closely associated with the Hayes next of the election controversy.

“The an excellent Railway Strike” and the accompanying riots during the summer the 1877 gift a significant test to the brand-new administration. President Hayes had actually to exert his authority together commander-in-chief that the military forces by responding to requisitions for commonwealth troops in claims where the governors were no able to preserve order through state militia. His decision come answer governors’ request by the usage of commonwealth force, wherein necessary, set a criterion for future federal strike plan where the national federal government assumed the protection of personal property as well as public property. Hayes, while willing to border the violent action of the workers, additionally expressed the id that “judicious control of capitalists” an unified with “education that the strikers” might provide a “real remedy” come the emerging difficulties of industrialization.

Regarding southern affairs, Hayes attempted to implement a program based on the ethics of cooperation and conciliation, as expressly collection forth in his inaugural address. As proof of his great intentions, in April 1877, that withdrew military support native the two remaining carpetbag governments in Louisiana and South Carolina. Originally he favored a nationwide program of internal renovations for the South. In hopes of widening the Republican basic of assistance in the South, the appointed numerous southern Democrats, such as David M. Key of Tennessee, to necessary federal positions, and also made numerous well-publicized trips come Dixie. However, this much criticized leave from traditional Republican policy floundered.


The President specialized considerable time attempting to settle the nation’s economic and monetary problems. A staunch adversary of complimentary and unlimited coinage that silver, he supported a financial routine embracing the financial doctrines of strictly adherence come the yellow standard and the resumption that specie payments. Hayes operated with his reliable friend and also adviser, Secretary the the Treasury john Sherman, to attain these goals. Under Sherman’s astute guidance, specie payments to be resumed in January 1879. Return overridden, chairman Hayes take it pride in his veto that the Bland-Allison Silver acquisition Act in February 1878. He attributed the economic upswing after the five-year depression the 1873 come his financial policies.

Two other areas which claimed a major share of president Hayes’ attention were Indian relations and also foreign affairs. With the help of Carl Schurz, the Secretary that the Interior, the management departed from classic treatment of the American Indian. Hayes regarded all American Indians as citizens fairly than “aliens” or “wards” and stressed the require for Indian education. Schurz, a fiery German-born liberal, initiated needed reforms in the Indian service, and also thwarted a movement to transfer control of the office of Indian Affairs earlier to the battle Department. Hayes and Schurz set the groundwork because that future Indian policy. One serious an obstacle in the administration’s Indian regime was the removal of the Poncas to Indian territory. This problem, inherited indigenous the approve government, plagued Hayes throughout his term.

In foreign affairs, president Hayes and also his Secretary of State, william M. Evarts, do the efforts to boost the professionalism that the diplomatic corps by reorganizing the department of State and also promoting career policemans whenever possible. The administration actively encouraged American trade and commerce abroad and asserted the appropriate of the United claims to interference in matters involving an inter-oceanic canal. Hayes and Evarts adhered to a generally conciliatory foreign policy, and also finally well-known the Diaz program in Mexico and also received the very first Chinese minister come the united States. Both actions relieved potential diplomatic problems, together did the veto that the Chinese exclusion Act on in march 1, 1879. Secondary point of interest was Hayes’ company as arbiter that a border dispute in between Paraguay and Argentina.

Another vital facet of president Hayes’ four years in office to be the quantity of time he invested traveling transparent the united States. Called “Rutherford the Rover” by his detractors, Hayes made four extended trips and numerous much shorter junkets while he was president. Included in his travel were official visits to new England, the South, the Midwest, and also the West. His great Western tour of 1880 marked the an initial time a United states president had actually visited the West coast while in office. Hayes looked upon these trips as an effective way for fostering unity, come dispel dissension, and to regain harmony in a nation which had actually been badly divided by the polite War.

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In his an individual life and also his political activities, Hayes available something the a contrast to his predecessor. Regardless of their controversial abolition of alcohol in the White House, the an initial family controlled to entertain through both elegance and variety during their four years in Washington. In fact, these functions highlighted the Washington society season. As part of his civil business reform, Rutherford Hayes refused to appoint family members to government posts, and also did not seek to turn any kind of private profit from his politics positions. The president personally presented the model virtues that the finest side of the victorian era - tough work, modesty, sobriety, and also integrity - as an example to the American people.