Type A and also B Personality

Type A and also B Personality

By Dr. Saul McLeod, updated 2017This type of personality concerns how world respond come stress. However, although its name indicates a personality typology, the is much more appropriately conceptualized as a properties continuum, v extremes Type-A and Type-B people on each end.Type A personality is identified by a consistent feeling that working versus the clock and also a solid sense of competitiveness.Individuals with a kind A personality normally experience a higher stress level, hate failure and find it challenging to stop working, even when they have completed their goals.

You are watching: The _____ behavior pattern is characterized by a patient and nonaggressive manner.


Research Background


To view this video please enable JavaScript, and consider upgrading come aweb browser thatsupports HTML5 video

Type A and also B Personality

Friedman and also Rosenman (both cardiologists) actually uncovered the kind A habits by accident after castle realized that their waiting-room chairs needed to it is in reupholstered much sooner than anticipated.

When the upholsterer arrived to carry out the work, he closely inspected the chairs and noted that the upholstery had actually worn in an unexplained way: "there"s miscellaneous different about your patients, I"ve never ever seen anyone wear out chairs prefer this."Unlike most patients, who wait patiently, the cardiac patients seemed unable come sit in your seats for long and wore out the eight of the chairs. They often tended to sit ~ above the edge of the seat and also leaped increase frequently.However, the doctors initially dismissed this remark, and also it was only five years later on that they began their formal research.Friedman and also Rosenman (1976) labeling this behavior kind A personality. They subsequently conduced research study to present that people with form A personality operation a higher risk that heart an illness and high blood pressure than type Bs.Although originally referred to as "Type A personality" by Friedman and also Rosenman it has actually now been conceptualized together a collection of behavioral responses collectively known as form A habits Pattern.

Type A habits Pattern (TABP)

Type A behavior Pattern (TABP)

Type A individuals tend to be very competitive and also self-critical. They effort toward goals without feeling a feeling of happiness in their efforts or accomplishments.Interrelated through this is the presence of a far-ranging life imbalance. This is identified by a high occupational involvement. Type A individuals are quickly ‘wound up’ and also tend to overreact. They also tend to have actually high blood pressure (hypertension).

Type B & C Personalities

Type B & C Personalities

Type B personality is characterized by a relaxed, patient, and easy-going nature.Individuals v a kind B personality occupational steadily, enjoy it achievements, yet do not tend to become stress when objectives are not achieved.People with type B personality tend to be much more tolerant the others, are an ext relaxed than form A individuals, much more reflective, experience reduced levels the anxiety and also display a greater level the imagination and creativity.The form C personality has an obstacle expressing emotion and tends come suppress emotions, particularly an adverse ones such together anger. This method such individual additionally display "pathological niceness," conflict avoidance, high society desirability, end compliance and patience.

Empirical Research

Friedman & Rosenman (1976) performed a longitudinal study to check their theory that form A personality might predict incidents of heart disease. The west Collaborative group Study adhered to 3154 healthy and balanced men, aged between thirty-nine and also fifty-nine for eight and a half years.

Participants were asked to complete a questionnaire.

Examples of questions asked by Friedman & Rosenman:Do you feeling guilty if you usage spare time come relax?Do you should win in stimulate to have enjoyment indigenous games and sports?Do you typically move, walk and also eat rapidly?Do girlfriend often try to do more than one thing at a time?From your responses, and from your manner, each participant to be put into one of two groups:
Type A behavior: competitive, ambitious, impatient, aggressive, rapid talking.Type B behavior: relaxed, non-competitive.
According come the outcomes of the questionnaire 1589 people were divide as form A personalities, and also 1565 kind B.



The researchers found that an ext than double as many type A civilization as form B people arisen coronary love disease. Once the numbers were changed for smoking, lifestyle, etc. The still emerged that type A civilization were nearly twice as most likely to construct heart condition as form B people.

For example, eight years later on 257 that the participants had occurred coronary heart disease. Through the end of the study, 70% of the guys who had occurred coronary heart disease (CHD) were type A personalities.

The type A personality species behavior provides them an ext prone come stress-related illnesses such together CHD, raised blood pressure, etc.

Such human being are more likely to have their ”flight or fight” response collection off by things in your environment.As a result, castle are an ext likely to have actually the stress and anxiety hormones present, which over a long period of time leads to a variety of stress-related illnesses.

Research Evaluation

Limitations the the research involve troubles with external validity. Since the study provided an all masculine sample that is unknown if the results might be generalized to a female population.Studies brought out top top women have not presented such a significant difference between kind A and type B and subsequent health. This may suggest that different coping tactics are just as vital as personality.The study was may be to manage for other essential variables, such together smoking and also lifestyle. This is an excellent as it renders it much less likely that such extraneous variables could confound the outcomes of the study.

Theoretical Evaluation

However, there are a number of problems v the kind A and also B approach. Such approaches have been criticized for attempting come describe facility human experiences within narrowly characterized parameters. Many world may not fit quickly into a kind A or B person.

A longitudinal study carried out through Ragland and Brand (1988) found that together predicted by Friedman type A males were much more likely to endure from coronary heart disease. Interestingly, though, in a follow as much as their study, they uncovered that of the men who survived coronary events form A men died at a rate much lower than type B men.

The major problem v the kind A and form B theory is in reality determining which determinants are influencing coronary heart disease. Some research study (e.g., Johnston, 1993) has focused on hostility, arguing that the form A habits pattern is characterized by underlying hostility which is a significant factor leading to coronary love disease.

Other research has actually investigated the method that type A people experience and cope with stress, i m sorry is the major factor leading to coronary heart disease. It would seem that a much much more sophisticated model is essential to guess coronary heart disease than Friedman and also Rosenman"s kind A & form B approach.

See more: How Many Miles To Salt Lake City Utah, How Far Is Salt Lake City From Me

How to reference this article:How to referral this article:McLeod, S. A. (2017). Type A personality. Simply Psychology. Https://www.thedesigningfairy.com/personality-a.html
APA style ReferencesForshaw, M., & Sheffield, D. (Eds.). (2012). Health psychology in action. John Wiley & Sons.Johnston, D. W. (1993). The current status of the coronary prone behavior pattern. Journal that the Royal culture of Medicine, 86(7), 406.Ragland, D. R., & Brand, R. J. (1988). Coronary heart disease mortality in the western Collaborative team Study. Follow-up experience of 22 years. American journal of Epidemiology, 127(3), 462-475.Rosenman, R. H., Brand, R. J., Sholtz, R. I., & Friedman, M. (1976). Multivariate forecast of coronary heart disease during 8.5 year follow-up in the west Collaborative team Study. The American newspaper of Cardiology, 37(6), 903-910.
Personality TheoriesMinnesota Multiphasic Personality perform (MMPI)Big five PersonalityThe body"s solution to stressStress and the immune systemType A Personality TestJournal post - The Personality Assessment system as A theoretical Framework for the type A Coronary-Prone behavior Pattern Journal write-up - evaluation of form A personality