Data is details that has been interpreted into a type that is much more conducive to storage, transmission, and calculation.

You are watching: The ____ was not created by a standards-making organization but by a group of computer scientists.


A form of microcomputer-to-local area network link that is cultivation in popular is the wireless connection.


To connect with the net using a dial-up modem, a user’s computer must affix to another computer that is already communicating with the Internet.


It is not feasible to attach two neighborhood area networks so that they have the right to share peripherals and also software.


Metropolitan area networks can transfer data at fast, LAN speeds however over smaller geographic regions than typically associated with a local area network.


The OSI version tells united state what type of wire or what type of connector to use to connect the pieces of a network.


In a network architecture, as the packet move up through the layers, the data packet shrinks in size.

A ____ is one interconnection that computers and computing equipment using one of two people wires or radio waves over small or big geographic areas.

a.

personal area network (PAN)

c.

wireless network

b.

computer network

d.

local area network (LAN)


____ is the infection of multiple signal on one medium.

a.

Multiplexing

c.

Modem

b.

Codec

d.

Package


____ is the design, installation, and also support of a network and also its hardware and software.

a.

Convergence

c.

Data network

b.

Voice network

d.

Network management


____ room the computer systems that save network software and shared or personal user files.

a.

Switches

c.

Servers

b.

Routers

d.

Hubs


____ are qualified of filtering out unnecessary traffic.

a.

Switches

c.

Servers

b.

Routers

d.

Workstations


A ____ is a maker that is basically a keyboard and screen v no permanent storage capabilities and little, if any, processing power.

a.

protocol

c.

thick-client

b.

mainframe

d.

computer terminal


In a(n) ____ system, a user at a microcomputer, or customer machine, concerns a request for some form of data or service.

a.

wireless

c.

bridge

b.

client/server

d.

Internet


A modem and also a dial-up telephone company provides data transfer rates of around ____.

a.

56,000 bits per 2nd (56 kbps)

c.

128,000 bits per 2nd (128 kbps)

b.

112,000 bits per 2nd (112 kbps)

d.

256,000 bits per 2nd (256 kbps)


The internet “talks” only ____, for this reason users must use software application that support this protocol.

a.

IPX/SPX

c.

TCP/IP

b.

DSL

d.

FTP


The devices that usually connect two or an ext LANs room the switch, hub, and also ____.

a.

workstation

c.

server

b.

access point

d.

router


A ____ is a high-speed network that interconnects lot of sites within a close geographic region, such as a huge urban area.

a.

metropolitan area network (MAN)

c.

local area network (LAN)

b.

wide area network (WAN)

d.

personal area network (PAN)


Connecting two broad area networks requires devices such together high-speed ____.

a.

hubs

c.

bridges

b.

routers

d.

reflectors


The ____ in a network design define a model for the features or solutions that must be performed.

a.

servers

c.

routers

b.

workstations

d.

layers


The worldwide Organization because that Standardization (ISO) developed the ____ reference version in an attempt to standardize the architecture of communication systems and also the interoperability between their components.

a.

Open solution Interconnection (OSI)

c.

FTP

b.

TCP/IP

d.

ASCII


The ____ great of the OSI version makes certain the data obtained at the an extremely end of a infection is specifically the exact same as the data originally transmitted.

a.

application

c.

transport

b.

session

d.

network access


The ____ layer of the OSI version performs a series of various functions important for presenting the data package properly to the sender or receiver.

a.

transport

c.

applications

b.

presentation

d.

session


The ____ class is responsible for establishing sessions between users for token management.

a.

network

c.

transport

b.

application

d.

session


____ is a company that controls i beg your pardon user’s computer talks when throughout the existing session by pass a software token back and forth.

a.

Token management

c.

Character conversion

b.

Synchronization point

d.

Encryption/decryption


The ____ great of the OSI version performs end-to-end error control and also end-to-end flow control.

a.

application

c.

transport

b.

presentation

d.

session


The ____ layer of the OSI model performs jam control.

a.

network

c.

physical

b.

data link

d.

session


____ ensures the the network go not come to be saturated at any one point.

a.

End-to-end error control

c.

End-to-end flow control

b.

Congestion control

d.

Synchronization clues control


The bottom layer in the OSI model—the ____ layer—handles the transmission of bits over a interactions channel.

a.

data link

c.

physical

b.

application

d.

network


The ____ suite to be not created by a standards-making organization but by a group of computer system scientists.

a.

OSI model

c.

OSI model

b.

FTP protocol

d.

TCP/IP protocol


The TCP/IP ____ layer supports network applications and may encompass presentation services.

a.

transport

c.

network

b.

application

d.

network access


____ is supplied to permit the numerous aspects within a computer network come be regulated from a single point.

a.

Simple Network monitoring Protocol (SNMP)

b.

Simple Mail move Protocol (SMTP)

c.

Telnet

d.

File carry Protocol (FTP)


The TCP/IP ____ layer frequently uses the Transmission manage Protocol (TCP) to preserve an error-free end-to-end connection.

a.

network

c.

transport

b.

network access

d.

application


The TCP/IP ____ layer, sometimes dubbed the web layer, is around equivalent to OSI’s network layer.

a.

network access

c.

transport

b.

application

d.

network


A(n) ____ link is a nonphysical connection between sender and also receiver that allows an exchange the commands and also responses.

a.

physical

c.

real

b.

encapsulated

d.

logical


The enhancement of control information to a packet together it moves v the layers is dubbed ____.

a.

encapsulation

c.

payload

b.

overloading

d.

filtering


The merging with each other of two or an ext businesses or technologies is termed

a.

convergence

c.

manipulation

b.

inversion

d.

commercilization


Computer networks that use radio waves room termed ____________________ and also can involve transfer radio, microwaves, or satellite transmissions.


Metropolitan area networks room a cross between local area networks and also ____________________ networks.

In a(n) ______________________________ connection, the activity of a human or object triggers a sensor the is connected to a network.


A dictionary might define “____________________” as the process of coming together toward solitary point.


A(n) ____________________, or interactions model, areas the proper network pieces in layers.


The 2 most common architectures well-known today are the open Systems Interconnection (OSI) model and the ____________________ protocol suite.


The OSI model consists of seven layers: application, presentation, session, ____________________, network, data link, and physical.


The top layer in the OSI model is the ____________________ layer, where the application making use of the network resides.


The ____________________ class of the OSI model is responsible for establishing sessions in between users.


The ____________________ layer of the OSI version is responsible for creating, maintaining, and ending network connections.


The ____________________ great of the OSI model is responsible for acquisition data from the network layer and also transforming it right into a cohesive unit dubbed a frame.


The ____________________ protocol suite incorporates the TCP and IP protocols and also has in fact always been much more popular than the OSI model.


___________________________________ is used to allow Web browsers and servers come send and receive World vast Web pages.


The _________________________ is the software application that prepares a packet that data so the it can move native one network to an additional on the net or within a set of corporate networks.


The ____________________ connection is the only straight connection between sender and also receiver and also is at the physics layer, where actual 1s and also 0s space transmitted end wires or airwaves.


The ______________ class of the TCP/IP protocol suite is responsible because that making certain that what pipeline one finish of the network arrives at the other end of the network precisely the same.


One that the main shortcomings that analog data and also analog signals is how difficult it is to separate noise from the original waveform.


The capacity to different noise native a digital waveform is one of the good strengths of digital systems.

Attenuation in a tool such as copper cable is a logarithmic loss and also is a role of distance and the resistance in ~ the wire.


Telephones, to be radio, FM radio, broadcast television, and cable television space the most usual examples that analog data-to-digital signal conversion.


With NRZI, the receiver has actually to inspect the voltage level because that each little bit to identify whether the little bit is a 0 or a 1.


With NRZ-L, the receiver has to check whether there is a change at the start of the little to determine if that is a 0 or a 1.


An inherent trouble with the NRZ-L and NRZI digital encoding schemes is that long sequences that 0s in the data create a signal that never changes.


The huge disadvantage the the Manchester schemes is that roughly fifty percent the time there will be 2 transitions throughout each bit.


Under part circumstances, the baud rate may equal the bps, such as in the Manchester encoding schemes.


Amplitude shift keying is at risk to suddenly noise impulses such as the static charges produced by a lightning storm.


Phase alters are not impacted by amplitude changes, nor space they influenced by intermodulation distortions.


According to a famous interactions theorem produced by Nyquist, the sampling price using pulse password modulation must be at the very least three times the highest frequency that the initial analog waveform.


One of the most usual forms of datatransfer between a transmitter and a recipient is textual data.


Certain control characters administer data carry control in between a computer resource and computer destination.


One the the major problems through Unicode is the it cannot represent symbols other than those uncovered in the English language.

____ is entities that convey definition within a computer system or computer system.

a.

Signals

c.

Impulse

b.

Data

d.

EMI


If you want to move data native one suggest to another, one of two people via a physical cable or through radio waves, the data has to be converted right into a(n) ____.

a.

hertz

c.

signal

b.

Unicode

d.

byte


____ are represented as constant waveforms that have the right to be in ~ an infinite number of points in between some provided minimum and also maximum.

a.

Analog signals

c.

Digital data

b.

Digital signals

d.

Digital pulses


Unfortunately, noise chin occurs together a(n) ____ waveform, and this renders it challenging, if not incredibly difficult, to separate noise indigenous an analog waveform the represents data.

a.

analog

c.

hertz

b.

digital

d.

byte


____ room discrete waveforms, fairly than continuous waveforms.

a.

Analog signals

c.

Digital signals

b.

Analog bauds

d.

Analog data


The three an easy components of analog and digital signals are: amplitude, frequency, and ____.

a.

cycles

c.

hertz

b.

baud

d.

phase


The amplitude that a signal deserve to be expressed as volts, ____, or watts.

a.

hertz

c.

bits

b.

amps

d.

bytes


The ____ of a signal is the variety of times a signal renders a finish cycle in ~ a given time frame.

a.

phase

c.

period

b.

amplitude

d.

frequency


The frequency selection of the average human being voice usually goes no reduced than 300 Hz and also no greater than about ____ Hz.

a.

2200

c.

3400

b.

2400

d.

5300


The shortest note feasible on the piano is ____ Hz, and the greatest note possible is 4200 Hz.

a.

30

c.

300

b.

80

d.

450


The bandwidth of a telephone mechanism that transmits a single voice in the selection of 300 Hz to 3400 Hz is ____ Hz.

a.

10

c.

3100

b.

100

d.

3700


When traveling through any kind of medium, a signal constantly experiences some loss of its power due to friction. This lose of power, or lose of signal strength, is dubbed ____.

a.

amplification

c.

decibel

b.

friction

d.

attenuation


When a signal is intensified by one amplifier, the signal benefit in ____.

a.

decibels

c.

bytes

b.

hertz

d.

watts


____ is the process of sending out data end a signal by differing either its amplitude, frequency, or phase.

a.

Amplification

c.

Attenuation

b.

Modulation

d.

Digital encoding


The ____ encoding scheme has a voltage adjust at the start of a 1 and no voltage readjust at the beginning of a 0.

a.

nonreturn to zero reverse (NRZI)

c.

Manchester

b.

nonreturn come zero-level (NRZ-L)

d.

Differential Manchester


The ____ digital encoding system is comparable to the Manchester system in that there is always a change in the center of the interval.

a.

NRZ-L

c.

differential Manchester

b.

Bipolar-AMI

d.

NRZI


The Manchester encoding schemes are referred to as ____, because the event of a regular shift is similar to seconds ticking top top a clock.

a.

continuous-clocking

c.

discrete-clocking

b.

analog-clocking

d.

self-clocking


The variety of times a signal alters value per second is called the ____ rate.

a.

hertz

c.

watts

b.

baud

d.

volts


The data price is measure up in ____.

a.

bits per second (bps)

c.

bauds per second (bps)

b.

bytes per 2nd (Bps)

d.

hertz per 2nd (hps)


Using ____, when a machine transmits a binary 0, a zero voltage is transmitted. Once the device transmits a binary 1, one of two people a hopeful voltage or a an adverse voltage is sent .

a.

Manchester

c.

differential Manchester

b.

bipolar-AMI

d.

NRZ-L


The primary benefit of a bipolar plan is that once all the voltages are included together ~ a lengthy transmission, there must be a full voltage of ____.

a.

-2

c.

0

b.

-1

d.

1


The Manchester encoding schemes resolve the synchronization problem however are relatively inefficient due to the fact that they have a baud price that is ____ the bps.

a.

equal to

c.

three times

b.

twice

d.

four times


A maker that mediate digital data onto an analog signal and then demodulates the analog signal ago to digital data is a ____.

a.

repeater

c.

hub

b.

switch

d.

modem


Three currently popular modulation techniques for encoding digital data and also transmitting it over analog signals are amplitude transition keying, frequency shift keying, and also ____ change keying.

a.

noise

c.

strength

b.

baud

d.

phase


Frequency change keying is subject to ____.

a.

baud noise

c.

intermodulation distortion

b.

bps distortion

d.

noise spikes


____ change keying represents 0s and 1s by different changes in the phase of a waveform.

a.

Amplitude

c.

Frequency

b.

Phase

d.

Noise


____ shift keying incorporates four various phase angles, each of which to represent 2 bits.

a.

Quadrature amplitude

c.

Quadrature noise

b.

Quadrature frequency

d.

Quadrature phase


____ modulation, i beg your pardon is commonly employed in modern modems, supplies each signal adjust to represent 4 bits.

a.

Quadrature amplitude

c.

Quadrature noise

b.

Quadrature frequency

d.

Quadrature phase


One encoding an approach that converts analog data to a digital signal is ____.

a.

NRZ-L

c.

pulse password modulation (PCM)

b.

Manchester

d.

NRZ-I


Tracking one analog waveform and converting it come pulses that stand for the wave’s height above (or below) a threshold is termed ____.

a.

pulse amplitude modulation (PAM)

c.

quantization

b.

codec

d.

quantization levels


When converting analog data to digital signals, the frequency in ~ which the snapshots room taken is called the ____ rate.

a.

baud

c.

bps

b.

sampling

d.

byte


With ____, a codec monitor the just arrived analog data by assessing increase or down “steps.”

a.

differential Manchester

c.

NRZI

b.

Bipolar-AMI

d.

delta modulation


____ is an 8-bit code permitting 256 feasible combinations of textual symbols.

a.

EBCDIC

c.

NRZI

b.

Unicode

d.

UTF-9


The ____ is a federal government standard in the united States.

a.

UTF-8

b.

EBCDIC

c.

American conventional Code for information Interchange (ASCII)

d.

Unicode


The ASCII character set exists in a couple of different forms, including a ____ variation that enables for 128 feasible combinations the textual symbols.

a.

3-bit

c.

6-bit

b.

5-bit

d.

7-bit


____________________ is unwanted electric or electromagnetic power that degrades the quality of signals and also data.

The ____________________ the a signal is the elevation of the wave over (or below) a offered reference point.


The variety of frequencies that a signal spans indigenous minimum come maximum is dubbed the ____________________.


The ____________________ the a signal is the absolute worth of the difference between the lowest and highest frequencies.

See more: Wwe/ Espn Wwe Behind The Curtain ': Biggest Takeaways From Espn Documentary


Because extraneous noise degrades initial signals, one electronic maker usually has a(n) ____________________ the is less than the bandwidth.