An imaginary heat drawn across two subjects, setting a border for the camera angles. The activity axis is offered to anchor the continually of action on screen.

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In film making, the 180-degree preeminence is a an easy guideline regarding the on-screen spatial relationship between a character and also another character or object within a scene. By keeping the camera top top one next of an imagine axis between two characters, the first character is always frame appropriate of the second character. Relocating the camera end the axis is called jumping the heat or cross the line; breaking the 180-degree preeminence by shooting on every sides is known as shoot in the round.

The 180-degree rule allows the audience come visually connect with unseen motion happening around and behind the prompt subject and also is particularly important in the narration of battle scenes.


In a dialogue scene between two characters, a directly line deserve to be imagine running between the 2 characters, and also extending to infinity. If the camera remains on one side of this line, the spatial relationship in between the two personalities will be continuous from shot to shot, even if one of the characters is not on screen. Changing to the various other side the the characters on a reduced will turning back the stimulate of the personalities from left to right and may disorient the audience.

The rule also applies come the activity of a character together the "line" produced by the path of the character. For example, if a personality is wade in a leftward direction and is come be choose up by another camera, the personality must leave the very first shot on framework left and enter the next shot structure right.

A jump cut can be provided to signify time. If a character leaves the framework on the left side and enters the frame on the left in a different location, that can give the illusion of an extended amount that time passing.

Another example might be a auto chase: If a auto leaves the ideal side that the structure in one shot, that should enter from the left next of the frame in the following shot. Leaving native the right and also entering indigenous the right creates a comparable sense that disorientation as in the dialogue example.

Reverse cuts

The imagine line enables viewers to orient themselves through the position and also direction of activity in a scene. If a shot adhering to an earlier shot in a succession is situated on the opposite next of the 180-degree line, then it is referred to as a "reverse cut". Reverse cuts disorient the viewer through presenting one opposing ideology of the action in a scene and consequently transforming the perspective of the activity and the spatial orientation established in the original shot.

There space a variety of methods to prevent confusion pertained to crossing the heat due to particular situations led to by plot or instances in a step that would certainly necessitate breaking the 180-degree line. The motion in the scene deserve to be altered, or cameras set up ~ above one side of the scene so the all the shots reflect the check out from the side of the 180-degree line.

Another means to permit for crossing the line is to have actually several shots with the camera arching native one side of the line to the other throughout the scene. That shot can be provided to orient the audience come the reality that they are looking at the scene from an additional angle. In the instance of movement, if a character is checked out walking into structure from behind on the left side walking in the direction of a building corner ~ above the right, as they walk approximately the corner of the building, the camera can capture them coming towards the camera on the various other side the the building entering the structure from the left side and also then walk directly at the camera and also then leave the left side of the frame.

To minimize the "jolt" between shots in a succession on either political parties of the 180-degree line, a buffer shot have the right to be contained along the 180-degree heat separating each side. This lets the viewer visually comprehend the change in viewpoint expressed in the sequence.


In experienced productions, the applied 180-degree ascendancy is an essential element because that a format of film editing called continuity editing. The preeminence is not constantly obeyed. Sometimes a filmmaker purposely breaks the line of activity to produce disorientation. Carl Theodor Dreyer go this in The enthusiasm of Joan the Arc; Stanley Kubrick likewise did this, because that example, in the bathroom step in The Shining. The Wachowskis and directors Jacques Demy, Tinto Brass, Yasujirō Ozu, Wong Kar-wai, and also Jacques Tati sometimes ignored this ascendancy also, as has actually Lars von Trier in Antichrist. In the seminal film of the French brand-new Wave, À bout de souffle ("Breathless"), Jean-Luc Godard division the dominion in the first five minute in a car scene that jumps in between the former and back seats, improvising one "aesthetic rebellion" for which the new Wave would come to be known. Once the ascendancy is damaged accidentally, or because that a technical reason (such together the i can not qualify to ar a camera physically in the correct position), there are means for the editor to effort to hide the mistake. The editor might pre-lap one or two words that dialog prior to the cut, so that the viewer is concentrating on what is gift said and may be less likely to notification the rule-breaking cut.

Some formats used with the 180-degree ascendancy can elicit an feeling or create a intuitive rhythm. By moving the camera closer to the axis because that a close-up shot, it have the right to intensify a scene as soon as paired v a long shot. As soon as the camera is moved further away indigenous the axis because that a long shot after a close-up shot, it may provide a rest in the action of the scene.

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In the Japanese animated snapshot Paprika, 2 of the main characters discuss cross the line and demonstrate the disorienting result of in reality performing the action.