AP Biology help » Cellular biological » Cell functions » Cellular department » understanding Meiosis
Explanation:

Gametes space haploid cell that developed via meiosis. Throughout meiosis, diploid cell divide right into four nonidentical haploid daughter cells. Mitosis produces two identical diploid somatic cells from one parent cell.


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Explanation:

Meiosis outcomes in cells through 23 chromosomes (22 autosomes and also 1 sex chromosome). Note that these cells room haploid since n=23, and also nonidentical, due to crossing over throughout prophase I.

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Explanation:

Gametes space made via meiosis which produces cells v n=23 instead of diploid cells. If gametes were developed instead through mitosis each gamete would be diploid no haploid. Throughout fertilization the diploid gametes, the zygote would become 4n=92. With each brand-new generation the number of chromosomes would certainly double.


Explanation:

In biology, the ax “ploidy” describes the variety of chromosome sets every cell. Haploid cells have half of the variety of chromosomes as parent cells, an interpretation that they only bring a solitary copy of each gene. Haploid cells room formed during meiosis and, in humans, produce gametes, which mature right into sperm and also egg cells.


Explanation:

Diploid cells contain two copies of each chromosome, as such containing double as numerous (2n) chromosomes together a haploid cell (n), which contain only one copy of every chromosome. In humans, diploid somatic cell contain 46 chromosomes, or 23 pairs of chromosomes.


Explanation:

Trisomy 21, or down syndrome results when a person individual inherits three duplicates of chromosome 21, instead of the regular two duplicates (one maternal and also one paternal). This is brought about by nondisjunction, or the improper distinction of chromosomes during cell division. In the instance of trisomy 21, nondisjunction leads to a failure of chromosome 21 segregation during meiosis (most of the time throughout anaphase I). This outcomes in one of two people an egg or sperm transferring two duplicates of chromosome 21 rather of one. The zygote developed by fertilization establishes into an individual that has three duplicates of chromosome 21. Trisomy 21 manifests in physical expansion delays, pundit disabilities, and also distinctive facial features. 


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Example inquiry #37 : understanding Meiosis


Which molecular mechanism is not a feasible cause of nondisjunction?


Possible Answers:

Failure to happen the spindle assembly checkpoint


Error in cytoplasmic partitioning


Older period of an individual leads to weaker cohesin complexes in ~ the centromere


Maternal gametes have a higher chance that exhibiting nondisjunction


Correct answer:

Error in cytoplasmic partitioning


Explanation:

Nondisjunction is the improper distinction of chromosomes during meiosis or mitosis. The molecular causes behind nondisjunction are (1) boosted rate that nondisjunction in woman cells, (2) failure to effectively pass the spindle assembly checkpoint, and also (3) weakening that the cohesion complex at the centromere due to age.


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Example inquiry #38 : knowledge Meiosis


Which the the complying with organisms carry out not perform meiosis?


Possible Answers:

Mosses


Bacteria


Mammals


Flowering plants


Correct answer:

Bacteria


Explanation:

Meiosis is a procedure that to produce gametes in sex-related reproduction. Therefore, organisms the undergo sex-related reproduction or feature sexual life step undergo meiosis. Mammals develop haploid sperm and eggs with meiosis, i m sorry fuse to type a diploid zygote. In mosses, reproduction is dubbed the alternation that generations, definition that generations alternative between haploid and diploid forms. In this system, meiosis to produce haploid spores during the sporophyte generation, i m sorry germinate to form gametophyte precursors. In flower plants, cells in male and female sexual organs experience meiosis to kind precursor sex cells, dubbed spores. Prokaryotes, including bacteria, perform asexual reproduction that does not include the process of meiosis. Types of asexual reproduction incorporate fission, budding, and also fragmentation. In the instance of bacteria, cell reproduce by binary fission, or cellular department without mitotic spindles.


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Example inquiry #39 : knowledge Meiosis


What enzyme aids in chromosomal cross over during prophase ns of meiosis?


Possible Answers:

Protein kinase


DNA polymerase


Recombinase


DNA ligase


Correct answer:

Recombinase


Explanation:

During crossing end in prophase ns of meiosis, there is a physics exchange of hereditary material in between homologous chromosomes. This exchange wake up at the web page of double stranded breaks, whereby recombinase enzyme facilitate the invasion of the various other chromatid. The original strand and also invading strand anneal complying with this invasion. As soon as this happens between two chromosomes, the strands form a tetrahedral plan called a Holliday junction. Other recombinase enzymes relocate the junction down the strands, furthering recombination.


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Example question #40 : knowledge Meiosis


What is the term for the structural plan of chromatids undergoing cross over throughout meiosis?


Possible Answers:

Kinetochore


Telomere


Equatorial plane


Holliday junction


Correct answer:

Holliday junction


Explanation:

During prophase i of meiosis, homologous chromosomes exchange genetic material in a process called cross over. Twin stranded breaks and recombinase enzyme facilitate chromatid invasion and also annealing. The tetrahedral structure created through strand invasion between two chromosomes is referred to as the Holliday junction.

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