Learning Objective

describe operating budgets for merchandising, service, and not-for-profit organizations.

The instances used thus much to describe a master budget plan have been minimal to production companies. Manufacturing companies often tend to have considerable operating budgets and therefore serve as a good starting allude in learning exactly how to develop a master budget. However, all types of institutions use operation budgets.

You are watching: Which of the following budgets is unique to merchandising companies?

Merchandising Organizations

Question: What do operating budgets look prefer for merchandising organizations?


Answer: Merchandising organizations generally purchase perfect goods and sell castle to retail or everyone customers. Since merchandisers do not develop goods, they execute not use manufacturing or production-related budgets.

Figure 9.13 "Master budget Schedules for a Merchandising Organization" provides an introduction of the master budget plan schedules because that a merchandising organization. If you compare this diagram with figure 9.1 "Master budget plan Schedules" (master budget schedules for a production company), you will notice that production and also production-related budgets room not applicable to merchandising organizations. Straight materials space not needed, and also all labor and overhead prices are included in the selling and also administrative budget.

Figure 9.13 Master budget plan Schedules because that a Merchandising Organization


The many important element of budgeting for merchandising institutions is the merchandise purchases budget. The merchandise purchases budgetAn calculation of the systems of goods to it is in purchased and also the price per unit. Approximates the units of goods to it is in purchased and the expense per unit. Much like the production budget plan for a manufacturing company, the merchandise purchases spending plan estimates devices to it is in purchased (instead of systems to be produced) and also is based upon sales projections, as well as an calculation of desired ending merchandise inventory less beginning merchandise inventory.

Service Organizations

Question: What carry out operating budgets look choose for service organizations?


Answer: company organizations, such together architectural and audit firms, provide services quite than tangible goods. These institutions do not have raw materials, finished goods, or merchandise inventories, and therefore they carry out not have production or merchandise to buy budgets. Instead, the emphasis is on projected sales revenue indigenous services listed and the labor essential to accomplish sales revenue projections. Service organizations need to constantly estimate solutions to be detailed and make sure labor pressure resources are available to accomplish customer demand.

Not-for-Profit Organizations

Question: Not-for-profit organizations, together as school districts and also charitable organizations, likewise use budgets for planning and control purposes. The budgeting process in many not-for-profit institutions is vital because the approved spending plan often serves together the legitimate authority for expenditures. What carry out operating budgets look prefer for not-for-profit organizations?


Answer: because not-for-profit institutions are really diverse in nature—for example, some carry out a service, if others collect money to help victims the natural disasters or come promote medical research—it is an overwhelming to generalize about which master budget plan components apply and also which do not. However, through an understanding of the spending plan components used by manufacturing, merchandising, and service organizations, one can create a budgeting procedure for virtually any kind of not-for-profit organization. For an instance of just how one not-for-profit company goes about the budgeting process, read note 9.35 "Business in action 9.3".

Business in activity 9.3

Budgeting in ~ a Not-for-Profit Organization

Yearly, a little not-for-profit symphony in California creates an operating budget with earnings totaling $200,000. The symphony’s treasurer monitor the spending plan committee, i beg your pardon is consisted of of three board members. The budget committee is responsible for creating, approving, and also monitoring the budget.

The budget committee begins the budgeting process by reviewing info from the year before. All plank members and also office employee are given spreadsheets mirroring last year results and also are asked to carry out input for the next budget period. Because that example, the committee responsible because that ticket sales estimates sales revenue based upon expected ticket sales time the average sales price. Anticipated boosts in sales price are considered in the sales budget.

Expenses are likewise budgeted based on last year actual results. Those requesting increases in budgeted expenditures must justify them. As soon as revenues and also expenses are developed for the next budget period, the bookkeeper start the info using QuickBooks software and prints a preliminary budget report, i beg your pardon the spending plan committee reviews. As soon as the budget committee has well balanced the budget, reviewed it for reasonableness, and also approved it, it goes to the plank of directors because that approval.

The manage phase that the budgeting procedure requires that all expenditures be in accordance through the budget. Any kind of expenditure exceeding the spending plan by an ext than $25 should be authorized by the plank of directors. A financial report comparing actual revenues and also expenditures through budgeted revenues and also expenditures (produced using QuickBooks software) is it is registered to the board of director monthly.

Key Takeaway

Merchandising institutions do not develop goods, and therefore do not have actually production or production-related budgets. Instead, merchandisers prepare a merchandise purchase budget. Service companies execute not have production or merchandise purchases budgets. Instead, service organizations focus on projected sales and also labor costs. Not-for-profit organizations also use budgets for planning and control purposes. The style depends top top the service being provided.

Review trouble 9.8

Patel and also Company performs audit services because that its customers. The agency had the complying with net revenue for the many recent year:


The complying with information was gathered to help prepare following year’s budgeted income statement:

company revenue will rise 10 percent (e.g., very first quarter service revenue for next year will be 10 percent greater than the very first quarter displayed previously). Manager and also staff incomes will boost 5 percent, and also a brand-new staff accountant will certainly be hired at the beginning of the second quarter at a quarterly salary of $12,000. Bureaucratic staff earnings will rise 10 percent. Supplies and rent will continue to be the same. Utilities will rise 5 percent. Insurance will increase 25 percent. Miscellaneous expenses will to decrease 10 percent.

Prepare a quarterly budgeted income statement for Patel and Company; incorporate a obelisk summarizing the year.

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Solution come Review trouble 9.8


*First quarter budget of $148,500 = $135,000 in critical year’s first quarter revenue × (1 + .10).

**Quarterly budget of $63,000 = $60,000 in last year’s quarterly wages × (1 + .05).

***First quarter spending plan of $26,250 = $25,000 in critical year’s very first quarter earnings × (1 + .05). Second, third, and also fourth quarter budgets include newly hired employee at $12,000 a quarter.

^Quarterly budget plan of $11,000 = $10,000 in last year’s quarterly budget plan × (1 + .10).

^^ No readjust from critical year.

^^^ Quarterly spending plan of $2,100 = $2,000 in critical year’s quarterly budget plan × (1 + .05).

 Quarterly spending plan of $17,500 = $14,000 in last year’s quarterly budget × (1 + .25).

 Quarterly budget of $5,850 = $6,500 in critical year’s quarterly spending plan × (1 – .10).