Foreign straight investment and its drivers: a an international and EU perspective prepared by Federico Carril-Caccia and also Elena Pavlova

Published as component of financial Bulletin, problem 4/2018.

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The relationship of foreign direct investment (FDI) as a source of economic task has boosted rapidly over the last decade. In between 2000 and also 2016 the share of FDI stock in global GDP raised from 22% to 35%. Following a decline during the good Recession, mergers and also acquisitions (M&As), the most dynamic component of FDI, have actually recovered, reaching a document value of USD1.2trillion in the first quarter that 2018. The intensification the FDI task has important implications for both origin and destination nations in state of, for example,economic growth, productivity, wages and employment. Moreover, the development of multinational enterprise (MNEs) has been add by the creation of complex cross-border production chains, which also has important implications.

This post presents number of findings about the main advances in and also determinants the FDI end the previous decade, in ~ both global and EU level. Since the start of the 2000s there has been a gradual change in the worldwide FDI landscape, with arising market economic situations (EMEs) getting in importance both as a source of and also as a destination for together investment. EMEs have actually attracted a growing share the FDI flows, reaching more than 50% that the world’s total inward FDI in 2013. In addition, FDI operation are dominated by a relatively small variety of M&As. In 2016 M&As with a value in excess of USD 1 exchange rate accounted for only 1% of all FDI projects, however they generated 55% of complete FDI flows. Moreover, evidence suggests that FDI and also exports space not competing however complementary techniques for serving international markets. Finally, since 2008 EU nations are no much longer the world’s main FDI investors and recipients. Nevertheless, econometric evaluation shows the belonging come the EU considerably boosts FDI operation in member countries.

1 Introduction

The critical decade has actually witnessed a rise in FDI. between 2000 and 2016, FDI stocks thrived from 22% of world GDP come 35%. FDI, i beg your pardon is identified as a case where a firm own at the very least 10% of a company located in a various country,<1> is lugged out through MNEs, which invest abroad either v greenfield investments (GIs), i.e. The setting-up the subsidiaries abroad, or v M&As.<2>

FDI has actually the potential to lug several benefits to the recipient country. The come of MNEs in a nation can foster effectiveness through boosted competition. It can additionally produce confident productivity spillovers as MNEs incorporate domestic firms right into their production processes through forward and also backward linkages. In addition, MNEs often tend to make brand-new technology obtainable and provide accessibility to new markets, enhancing the training and also qualifications of the regional workforce and also increasing wages and also employment. The extent of these confident outcomes will depend partially on the host country’s absorptive capacity.<3> because that EU countries, existing proof confirms the positive influence of FDI.<4>

Traditionally, progressed economies have actually played a significant role together both the source and destination of FDI. until the beginning of the good Recession, virtually 90% of external FDI (OFDI) flows come from progressed economies. EU countries were particularly prominent, together their re-superstructure in civilization OFDI was almost 50%. At the exact same time, the EU and other progressed economies attracted between 60% and also 70% of complete inward FDI (IFDI) flows.

Since 2008 there has been a dramatic readjust in the global FDI landscape. OFDI and also IFDI from and also into EMEs have started to get in importance. By 2014 EMEs represented 41% and 56% of worldwide OFDI and also IFDI respectively, if the EU’s share of OFDI and also IFDI had shrunk to just 15% and 18% respectively.

This article provides summary of the main FDI trends and drivers. Section2 outlines some an essential developments. Section3 concentrates on determinants of FDI. Section4 addresses the relationship in between FDI and exports, i.e.whether they space complementary or substitutes. Finally, Section5 analyses the FDI power of euro area and non-euro area EU nations over time, consisting of the services of EU/euro area membership once it comes to attracting IFDI.

2 key developments in worldwide FDI

Over the critical two decades the worldwide map of inward and outward FDI has changed significantly. FDI has actually traditionally source from progressed economies, which were likewise the main destination (see Chart1). Because the beforehand 2000s, the importance of EMEs as a location for FDI has slowly increased. In 2013, for the very first time, EMEs attracted more than 50% of an international IFDI.<5>

chart 1

Inward foreign straight investment by destination

(left-hand scale: re-superstructure of progressed and emerging market economic climates in people IFDI, percentages; right-hand scale: complete IFDI, USDbillions)


Source: UNCTAD.

Over the critical 16 years, EMEs have also progressively raised in prominence as a resource of FDI. As portrayed in Chart2, the re-publishing of FDI originating native EMEs began to increase at the start of the 2000s. ~ 2008 the price of expansion of FDI native EMEs accelerated, and in 2014 EMEs accounted for 41% of total OFDI<6>.

chart 2

Outward foreign straight investment by origin

(left-hand scale: re-publishing of advanced and occurring economies in human being OFDI, percentages; right-hand scale: total OFDI, USD billions)


Source: UNCTAD.

In the EU and other progressed economies, M&As pat a prominent function in total IFDI flows. between 2003 and also 2016, an increasing share of IFDI in the EU and also other advanced economies to be accounted because that by M&As.<7> As presented in Chart3, in both nation groups M&As do up around 80% of complete IFDI operation in 2016. Return M&As have also increased in prestige in EMEs, IFDI in those countries is still dominated by GIs. In 2016 GIs accounting for around 80% that IFDI right into EMEs. In the case of OFDI, a similar trend is observed. Because that the EU and other advanced economies, M&As had become the wanted mode of outward investment by 2016, while for EMEs GIs remained predominant. In ~ the an international level, in the duration 2003‑2016 EMEs detailed the location for 62.7% of complete GI and 19.3% the M&A investment. In terms of OFDI, the EU and other progressed economies accounted for 72% of GI and also 82.4% that M&A investment.

graph 3

Share of M&As in an international IFDI and also OFDI, 2003‑16

(percentages; re-publishing of M&As in full IFDI and OFDI volumes)


Sources: UNCTAD, Thomson Reuters and calculations.Notes: Inward and also outward GI data space taken from UNCTAD. Inward and also outward M&A data space taken native Thomson Reuters. Calculations are based upon a sample that 94 countries. Complete IFDI and OFDI quantities for each year (2003, 2010 and also 2016) space calculated together the sums of inward and also outward GI and M&A operation respectively.

The solutions sector has end up being the main target for international acquisitions. The sectoral circulation of IFDI to be fairly continuous in the duration 2003‑16. Throughout this period, 70% of worldwide M&As to be in the solutions sector, adhered to by production (24%) and also the primary sector (6%). In the situation of GIs, the distribution between services and also manufacturing was an ext even (50.4% and 48.2% respectively), while the primary sector lagged far behind (1.4%).<8>

3 The structural determinants of FDI

MNEs have the right to engage in FDI tasks for a variety of strategic reasons (using local platforms to boost market penetration, soaking up or transferring brand-new technologies, gaining accessibility to sources or control of competitors, reducing production costs, etc.). A firm’s internationalisation usually relies on three straightforward preconditions: (i)high productivity, as only the most abundant firms have actually the capacity to invest abroad; (ii)the visibility of firm-specific advantages which room not conveniently transferable to third parties and are at the core of the firm’s output; and also (iii)a fairly strong market position in the house country.<9> The determinants of FDI deserve to in turn be grouped in the complying with way: (i)ownership, which permits a firm to finest exploit its competitive advantages abroad; (ii)location, which entails exploiting locational advantages throughout the globe ( of work or organic resources); and (iii)internalisation, whereby a certain internalises foreign markets for the use or generation that assets. Accordingly, FDI is thrust by 4 main factors: (i)markets; (ii)assets; (iii)natural resources; and (iv)efficiency seeking.<10>

First, by investing abroad, companies might seek accessibility to promising new markets. indigenous this perspective, inward FDI must tend to it is in positively correlated with the size of the host nation economy and its industry potential in state of economic growth.<11>

Second, asset-seeking FDI is driven by access to new, security resources and capabilities. This type of investment is motivated by a firm’s desire to enhance or expand its existing technologies, managerial skills or work force. The is regularly directed towards progressed countries.<12> In the EU, technological progress has actually been amongst the main vehicle drivers of IFDI.<13> conversely, in the instance of EMEs, a confident correlation between technological intensity and IFDI is not expected.

Third, FDI flows may likewise be moved by the desire for accessibility to natural resources. This form of FDI is more likely to be directed towards EMEs which have abundant organic resources. However, big natural source endowments can additionally deter IFDI into EMEs owing to what is recognized as the “natural source curse”, i.e.the an unfavorable long-term influence of big natural sources on a country’s advance (e.g. In state of economic growth, institutional top quality or capital allocation), which may hamper its capacity to lure FDI.<14> This outcome, however, is neither universal nor unavoidable, however affects particular countries under details conditions, such together high dependency of exports and fiscal profits on resource wealth, low saving rates, highly volatile source revenues, and crowding-out of other activities.

Fourth, efficiency-seeking FDI is greatly driven by lower labour prices and higher productivity. In the instance of work costs, existing evidence in the literature is much from conclusive.<15> This form of invest is typically expected to it is in directed in the direction of EMEs with big supplies the cheap labour (e.g. China and Vietnam) because that the advancement of low value included economic activities.<16>

Research confirms the important role played by institutional top quality in determining IFDI.<17> short institutional quality means a greater cost that doing company and greater transaction costs.<18> MNEs are likely to avoid nations with high instability, as it deserve to imply sudden alters in the legitimate framework and also a greater risk of expropriation.<19> Similarly, they tend to avoid nations with high level of corruption and also bureaucracy, together they indicate a direct extra cost of doing business.<20> ~ above the various other hand, compliance v the ascendancy of law and also private home rights room valued positively by MNEs. Similarly, lull of doing business ( terms of access to finance, trade regulation and also the variety of steps essential to begin a business) is another far-ranging driver that inward FDI.<21>

Finally, macroeconomic stability is one more relevant driver that inward FDI. The absence of huge swings in inflation and exchange prices in a host nation is a localisation benefit that can lure FDI through lowering dangers related to the intended value the assets and profits generated abroad.

Emerging countries’ MNEs (EMNEs) have particular motivations as soon as investing abroad. EMNEs differ from advanced economies’ MNEs in the they have tendency to be characterised by a lack of ownership advantages and global experience and also are subject to short institutional quality at home.<22> In addition, they additionally differ together regards the prominent function still played by state-owned MNEs in arising economies. For EMNEs, therefore, investing overseas is aimed first and foremost at becoming globally competitive by filling your competitiveness gap.<23> Thus, EMNEs look for to acquire technology and managerial an abilities and to access highly standard labour– all determinants that space scarce in your home country or would be costly to build internally. Another distinctive characteristic of EMNEs is that, specifically where natural resources are concerned, they show up to be an ext willing to run in host nations with short institutional quality than MNEs from advanced economies.<24> Box1 provides an introduction of the activities of the largest MNEs originating native both progressed and emerging economic climates in terms of their economic performance, funding intensity and overall financial relevance.

The internationalisation of EMNEs is impacted by the policies of their national governments, i m sorry are regularly pursued via state-owned enterprises.

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China is a element example. Government initiatives such together the “Go Global” policy, the “One Belt One Road” initiative and also “China production 2025” are fostering and also shaping Chinese corporate invest abroad.<25>