Bottom-up estimating is a an approach that entails estimations on a granular level for components of a project. These space then aggregated to a full estimate for the entire project. That is frequently referred to as one of the many accurate methods of estimating. Estimating cost, duration or source requirements of a project commonly starts v a turbulent order of magnitude in the beginning. This is complied with by much more accurate approximates later in a project.

You are watching: Which of the following is true of bottom-up estimates?

In this article, us will introduce theconcept, covering the differences and also interdependencies with other estimationtechniques and carry out guidance to and an instance of bottom-up estimating inprojects.


What Is Bottom-Up Estimating?

Example that the aggregation that bottom-up estimates (click to enlarge).
The requirements monitoring team, forinstance, could have used analogous estimating. In the case, they estimatedtheir resource, time and also budget needs based on observed values from previousworkshops and also specifications. Thus, they come up with estimates of 12 persons,29 days and also $104,400 for their workstream.

The experimentation team, on the other hand, mightknow how plenty of test instances a human being usually creates per day and also how many cases ateam member usually completes per day. Lock multiply these parameters v thenumber of expected test cases in the present project, i. E. They space applyingthe parametric estimating technique.

The light-blue rows in the above table showthe estimates on the job-related package level (i.e. The amount of the approximates of theactivities). The dark-blue lines stand for the second level of aggregation – thesum that resources, costs and duration ~ above a phase level (equivalent level to thatof deliverables in various other WBS types).

The orange cells contain the totalaggregates because that the totality project: a complete headcount that 47, a sum of time neededof 274 job (which is no necessarily the project duration, watch explanationbelow) and also total expense of $893,700.

Note the the numbers of headcount and also timeare only the sums that the particular granular estimates. In reality, theheadcount might be lower as some team members might work in differentactivities and also work packages. Because that instance, a service analyst that writesspecifications could likewise be deployed for testing in a later project phase.

The sum of the duration estimates of all activities does no necessarily equal the total duration of the project. This is due to the fact that scheduling may result in parallel tasks or waiting time the is not approximated on the activity level. This is actually a component of the breakthrough of the all at once schedule.

Advantages and Disadvantages the Bottom-Up Estimating


Bottom-up approximates can be veryaccurate. This is since team members room estimating the piece of work-related theyare responsible for. Together they frequently have the most expertise of your workpackage, their estimates tend to be much more accurate 보다 top-down estimates.Estimation errors deserve to balanceout throughout the components of a project. If the moment or price of one occupational packagehas been underestimated, for instance, this could be counter by anoverestimation of another work package. Such errors might thus notnecessarily affect the budget baseline at the task level.Bottom-up estimating have the right to beused in connect with various other estimation techniques, e.g. The activity durationcould be acquired through parametric or analogous estimating.


The underlying presumption isthat the task estimate is composed of the amount of that pieces. This may ignoreoverhead and integration efforts that may occur in enhancement to the work definedin activities. This holds for large and facility projects, in particular.The bottom-up estimation itselfrequires a lot more resources 보다 other approaches such together analogous estimating(top-down estimation).The cost estimation is based onthe duration estimate. Both rely on the estimated source requirements. Thus,an estimate error there would result in inaccurate time and also cost approximates aswell.In practice, bottom-up estimatescan be at risk to the prejudice or the understanding of the estimators. If this appliesto all types of estimates (to part extent), it might be less controllable inbottom-up estimating. This is since these estimations space usually excellent by manydifferent estimators, i.e. Those responsible because that a work-related package.


Bottom-up estimating have the right to be a an extremely accuratemethod to recognize the definitive estimate of a project. It needs a certainamount of resources and an established work breakdown structure. The projectmust have actually been damaged down to the work-related package and tasks level prior to youcan use this technique.

Apart from estimating resources, time andcosts for the planned job-related of a project, this an approach can also be supplied toassess readjust requests, e.g. In the course of a cost-benefitanalysis of together changes.

See more: Which Of The Following Are Examples Of Automatic Stabilizers? Check All That Apply.

There are additionally several other methods to calculation the expenses or expression of projects and their components. Make sure you read our short article on expense estimating and also estimating task durations to get an introduction and comparison of the various approaches.