GRE subject Test: Biology help » Genetics, DNA, and also Molecular biologic » Chromatin and Chromosomes » expertise Chromatin
Explanation:

DNA is save on computer in loosely wound euchromatin before mitosis. Throughout mitosis, the DNA condenses right into chromosomes, which room made the heterochromatin. It becomes an ext dense throughout prophase, and also stays that way until the end of mitosis. Euchromatin is an ext lightly packed 보다 heterochromatin.

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Mitosis adheres to the complying with sequence: prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase, cytokinesis. Interphase describes the time duration between mitotic divisions. Throughout interphase, most DNA is euchromatin, however some regions remain as heterochromatin to prevent unwanted transcription; thus DNA exists as both varieties of chromatin during interphase, however only together heterochromatin during mitosis. Matching euchromatin to telophase is the answer, together this is a false statement.


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Example concern #1 : Chromatin and Chromosomes


What is a nucleosome?


Possible Answers:

A repeating unit that chromatin


A membrane-bound organelle the contains epigenetic information


Non-chromosomal DNA the is totally free floating in the cytosol


A complicated of proteins that controls nuclear import 


Correct answer:

A repeating unit the chromatin


Explanation:

Nucleosomes are the basic, repeating devices of eukaryotic chromatin. Castle consist that chromosomal DNA wrapped approximately special DNA-binding proteins dubbed histones. There are countless examples the non-chromosomal DNA, such as plasmids, yet they execute not save on computer nucleosomes. Nuclear income is regulated by importin proteins.


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Example inquiry #1 : Chromatin and also Chromosomes


__________ space proteins supplied to package DNA. 


Possible Answers:

Chromatins


Histones


Telomerases


Nucleosomes


Correct answer:

Histones


Explanation:

Histones room proteins the bind and also package DNA. The strand that DNA is wound around histone proteins, condensing it come fit in the nucleus and acting to moderate gene expression. Chromatin is the term given to the complex of DNA linked with histones. A nucleosome is the smallest repeating unit that chromatin, created from eight histone proteins and two loops that coiled DNA. Telomerase is one enzyme responsible for maintaining the truth of the telomeres.


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Example inquiry #1 : Chromatin and Chromosomes


__________ is also known together "light" chromatin and also represents DNA the can proactively undergo __________.


Possible Answers:

Heterochromatin . . . Transcription


Euchromatin . . . Transcription


Heterochromatin . . . Translation


Euchromatin . . . Translation


Correct answer:

Euchromatin . . . Transcription


Explanation:

Euchromatin is the name provided to dyed that shows up lighter once viewed under a microscope. It is actually fairly decondensed dyed that is accessible for energetic transcription. Due to the fact that it is decondensed it is an ext accessible come RNA polymerase and, therefore, much easier to transcribe. In contrast, heterochromatin is strictly wound, thick DNA that is inaccessible by RNA polymerase and also is considered inactive.

Translation is the process of synthesizing proteins from mRNA transcripts and also does not straight involve DNA or chromatin.


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Example concern #2 : Chromatin and Chromosomes


Which that the adhering to is true of chromatin?


Possible Answers:

Chromatin never ever gets further compacted 보다 the 10nm fiber


Chromatin is current in every eukaryotic and also prokaryotic DNA


Patterns the methylation or acetylation of histones have the right to regulate gene expression


Nucleosomes consist of DNA wrapped in proteins well-known as transcriptions factors


Correct answer:

Patterns that methylation or acetylation the histones deserve to regulate gene expression


Explanation:

Chromatin is not existing in all eukaryotic and prokaryotic DNA; many prokaryotic DNA is circular and does not need the facility folding of eukaryotic bio chromatin. Chromatin exists in more compacted says than 10nm. In particular, the 30nm version is commonly recognized as heterochromatin (DNA the is no being proactively transcribed). Packaging can additionally be more condensed during particular stages the mitosis. Nucleosomes room the smallest units of chromatin and are strands of DNA covering in proteins well-known as histones.

Patterns of methylation and also acetylation of these histones have actually been shown to repress and activate gene expression, respectively, and also are important factors in regulating gene expression and also epigenetics.


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