A
access point A device that bridges the wireless connect on one next to the wired network on the other.
Analog Channel A circuit-switched interaction path intended to bring 3.1 KHz audio in every direction.
ARP deal with Resolution Protocol is the TCP/IP protocol that converts an Internet resolve into the hardware attend to of a network interface card.
ATM Asynchronous Transfer mode is a online circuit, fast packet technology. Traffic of every kinds (data, voice, video) is separated into 53-byte cells and also conducted over very high rate media.
ATO Adaptive TimeOut is the moment that must elapse before an acknowledgment is thought about lost. After a timeout, the sliding home window is partially closed and also the ATO is donate off.

C
call A connection or check connection between two terminal finish points on a PSTN or ISDN; for example, a phone call call between two modems.
CHAP challenge Authentication Protocol is a PPP cryptographic challenge/response authentication protocol in i m sorry the clear message password is no passed in the clear end the line.
CLID Calling line ID indicates to the recipient of a call, the phone number of the caller.
cm Cable Modem is generally a modem v an RF (cable) user interface on one side and also an Ethernet user interface on the other. A cable modem might likewise have a telephone interface for "telco return," i m sorry is supplied when only downstream capability exists in the cable plant.
CNR thedesigningfairy.com Network Registrar—A network administration application which has a DHCP server and also a DNS server.
neighborhood String A string offered to authenticate the trap message sender (SNMP agent) to the catch recipient (SNMP management station).
manage Messages manage messages are exchanged in between LAC, LNS pairs, and operate in-band in ~ the tunnel protocol. Manage messages govern elements of the tunnel and also sessions in ~ the tunnel.
CSG Cable Systems team is a billing equipment company.
CSR Customer service Representative—the human being you contact to activate or attain service for her account.
CSU/DSU Channel company Unit/Data company Unit isolates her network from her exchange carrier"s network. It also receives the timing, low-level frame information, and data passed indigenous the discontinuation point. CSU/DSUs are particular to the basic circuit type.
customer A user of one ISP or an enterprise. The provider supplies the client MPLS VPN service. The enterprise provides the customer far user access to various sites. In the situation of ISPs, MPLS BPN gives a scalable wholesale access/open accessibility solution.

D
DAP Directory access Protocol is a heavyweight protocol that runs end a complete OSI stack and also requires a significant amount of computer resources to run.
Data resource to adjust of data and their connected environments which incorporate operating system, DBMS, and also network platforms provided to accessibility the DBMS that an application wants to access.
DHCP Dynamic organize Configuration Protocol—a protocol that defines the company of providing and also managing IP addresses to client on a network.
DHCP customer The IOS DHCP client used to generate requests for host addresses and subnets because that non-PPP clients.
DHCP Proxy customer The IOS DHCP client used to request an deal with for a PPP user indigenous a DHCP server.
Dial usage Dial use is one end-system or router attached to an on-demand PSTN or ISDN, i m sorry is one of two people the initiator or recipient of a call.
Digital Channel Digital Channel is a circuit-switched communication path that is plan to bring digital info in each direction.
DNIS Dialed Number information String is one indication come the recipient of a call regarding what call number the caller supplied to reach it.
Driver Manager A one-of-a-kind library the manages communication in between applications and also drivers. Applications call ODBC API functions in the driver managers which load and also call one or more drivers on instead of of the applications.

E
EAP Extensible Authentication Protocol is a framework for a household of PPP authentication protocols, consisting of cleartext, challenge/response, and also arbitrary dialog sequences.

F
FT field Technician is someone that installs her cable modem in your house.
structure Relay structure Relay is a cost-effective, lightweight, many-to-many, medium-speed, virtual network, link-layer technology.

G
GGSN GPRS Gateway assistance Node, a network node that acts together a gateway in between a GPRS wireless data network and other networks such as the web or a personal network.
GPRS basic Packet Radio Service, a mobile data service easily accessible to customers of GSM and also IS-136 cell phone phones.

i
ISDN combined Services Digital Network permits synchronous PPP access.
ISP Internet company Provider is a company that gives Internet connectivity.

H
HDLC High-level Data connect Control is both a point-to-point and multiparty link-layer technology. HDLC provides reliable, acknowledged transfer across committed links.

together
L2TP accessibility Concentrator (LAC) LAC is a device attached come one or more PSTN or ISDN lines qualified of PPP operation and of taking care of the L2TP protocol. The LAC requirements only come implement the media over which L2TP is to run to pass website traffic to one or an ext LNSs. It can tunnel any type of protocol lugged within PPP.
LAN neighborhood Area Network consists of every one of the components that develop a device up to a router. These materials include cables, repeaters, bridges, and also software as much as the network layer.
LDAP Lightweight Directory access Protocol offers a standard method for web clients, applications, and WWW servers to access directory information across the web such together usernames, e-mail addresses, defense certificates, and also other call information.
LEAP irradiate Extensible Authentication Protocol—
llc Logical link Control is an interface that specifies several typical interfaces between higher-level protocols (for example, IP) and also the networks castle ride upon (for example, Ethernet, Token Ring, and others).
L2TP Network Server (LNS) an LNS operates on any type of platform capable of PPP termination. The LNS handles the server next of the L2TP protocol. Since L2TP relies just on the single media over which L2TP tunnels arrive, the LNS deserve to have only a solitary LAN or WAN interface, however still have the ability to terminate calls showing up at any type of LAC"s full selection of PPP interfaces (async, synchronous ISDN, V.120, etc.).

M
MIB Management information Base—Database of network management info used and also maintained by a network administration protocol such as SNMP. The value of a MIB object have the right to be adjusted or retrieved using SNMP commands. MIB objects are organized in a tree structure that consists of public and private branches.
MPLS Multi-Protocol label Switching—
MPLS VPN MPLS-based Virtual exclusive Networks
MSO Multiple device Operators are commonly cable service providers that carry out Internet accessibility for regional independent operators.

N
NAS Network access Server is a machine providing temporary, on-demand network accessibility to users. This accessibility is point-to-point utilizing PSTN or ISDN lines. A NAS operates together a customer of RADIUS. The client is responsible for passing user details to designated RADIUS servers. In PPTP terminology, this is referred to as the PPTP accessibility Concentrator (PAC). In L2TP terminology, the NAS is described as the L2TP access Concentrator (LAC).
NCP Network regulate Protocol is responsible because that negotiating the protocol-specific particulars that the point-to-point protocol (PPP) link.
Network access Identifier In stimulate to administer for the routing the RADIUS authentication and bookkeeping requests, the UserID ar used in PPP and in the succeeding RADIUS authentication and accounting requests, recognized as the Network accessibility Identifier (NAI), might contain structure. This structure offers a method by i m sorry the RADIUS proxy locates the RADIUS server that is to receive the request. This very same structure can also be provided to find the tunnel end allude when domain-based tunneling is used.

O
ODBC open Database Connectivity—a standard set of application programming user interface (API) function calls (supported by Microsoft and in basic use) that deserve to be supplied to access data store in both relational and non-relational database management systems (DBMSs).
ODBC Driver processes ODBC role calls, submits SQL request to specific data source, and also returns results to applications. ODBC vehicle drivers for specific varieties of data files, including database files, spreadsheet files, and also text fields, are available from Microsoft Corporation.

p
packet A block that data in a standard format for transmission.
PAP Password Authentication Protocol is a straightforward PPP authentication device in which a cleartext username and also password are transmitted to prove identity.
Payload The materials of a request packet.
PDU Protocol Data Unit—An SNMP compliant request, response, or catch message.
PE Router Provider leaf router—a router located at the leaf of the provider"s MPLS core network.
pop suggest of presence is the dial-in point or connection point for individuals connecting to an ISP.
PPD Packet Processing hold-up is the lot of time forced for each peer to process the maximum quantity of data buffered in their available receive packet window. The PPD is the worth exchanged in between the LAC and also LNS when a speak to is established. Because that the LNS, this number should be small. Because that an LAC sustaining modem connections, this number could be significant.
PPP Point-to-Point Protocol—a multiprotocol and also includes UDP, framework Relay PVC, and X.25 VC.
profile A collection of one or more attributes that define how a user need to be configured; for example, a profile deserve to contain an attribute who value states the form of connection business to administer the user, such together PPP, SLIP, or Telnet. Profiles deserve to be set up for a certain user or deserve to be shared amongst users.
Provider business Provider—A provider who operates the access networks and also MPLS backbone and also provides MPLS VPN service on the backbone.
PSTN public Switched call Network permits async PPP with modems.

Q
high quality of business (QOS) A offered Quality of service level is sometimes forced for a provided user being tunneled between an LNS-LAC pair. Because that this scenario, a distinct L2TP tunnel is developed (generally on optimal of a brand-new SVC) and encapsulated directly on top of the media providing the shown QOS.

R
RAC client The IOS DHCP client used to create requests for hold addresses and also subnets for non-PPP clients.
RADIUS remote Authentication Dial-In User Service. The RADIUS protocol provides a an approach that enables multiple dial-in Network accessibility Server (NAS) gadgets to share a usual authentication database.
RADIUS customer A Network accessibility Server (NAS) operates together a customer of RADIUS. The client is responsible because that passing user details to designated RADIUS servers, and then acting on the solution that is returned. A RADIUS server can act together a proxy client to other RADIUS servers.
RADIUS thesaurus The RADIUS thesaurus passes information between a script and the RADIUS server, or between scripts to run on a solitary packet.
RADIUS Proxy In bespeak to administer for the routing the RADIUS authentication and accountancy requests, a RADIUS proxy might be employed. Come the NAS, the RADIUS proxy appears to act as a RADIUS server, whereas to the RADIUS server the proxy shows up to act as a RADIUS client.
RADIUS Server A server that is responsible because that receiving user connection requests, authenticating the user, and then returning every one of the construction information important for the client to deliver the service to the user.
RAS Remote accessibility Services. View RADIUS Client.
far DHCP Server commonly a DHCP server in the organization provider"s networks, yet it might additionally be a DHCP server in the customer"s VPN.
far Server A server that has been registered with the user interface, which have the right to later it is in referenced together a proxy client or together the method to do a service; because that example, a far RADIUS server have the right to be specified to act together a proxy client.
REX RADIUS EXtension allows you to create C and C++ programs to affect the actions of thedesigningfairy.com element AR.
Roaming The ability to connect to a NAS that is no your regular POP (Point the Presence) and have the Access-Request redirected to your common RADIUS server. The capability to use any one the multiple internet server providers, while preserving a formal, customer-vendor partnership with just one.
Router A network machine that connects lot of network segments and forwards packets from one network come another. The router should determine exactly how to forward a packet based upon addresses, network traffic, and also cost.
Routing Tables A table that lists every one of the possible paths data deserve to take to acquire from a source to a destination. Relying on how routers are configured, they can develop their tables dynamically through trading info with various other routers, or they can be statically configured in advance.
RTT Round-Trip Time is the approximated round-trip time for an Acknowledgment come be got for a provided transmitted packet. As soon as the network attach is a neighborhood network, this delay will it is in minimal (if not zero). Once the network link is the Internet, this hold-up could be an extensive and vary widely. RTT is adaptive; it adjusts to include the PPD (Packet processing Delay) and also whatever changing network delays add to the time between a packet gift transmitted and receiving its acknowledgment.

S
SAP Service access Points (source and destination) identify protocols indigenous which a packet has actually come and to i beg your pardon a packet need to be delivered.
script indict that room run in the context of a RADIUS client/server session. Scripts have the right to be mentioned for servers, clients, vendors, and services. A script have the right to be supplied as an just arrive script, an outgoing script, or both. Just arrived scripts room executed during the Access-Request part of a dial-in session. Outgoing scripts are executed throughout the Access-Accept portion of a dial-in session. Scripts space referenced within the User user interface by name. Scripts have the right to be resource code because that a scripting language or a binary file.
business A method of point out the an approach to use to carry out a function. A business can be stated for the adhering to functions: authentication, authorization, accounting, and also authentication-authorization. Because that example, a organization can specify that authentication it is in performed utilizing the neighborhood database, or a company can point out that bookkeeping be supported by logging information to a file.
services three default solutions are referenced through the server configuration and also when processing scripts. They are Default Authentication Service, Default Authorization Service, and also Default audit Service. Each service has a form and (if the is utilizing remote servers) an ordered perform of servers to use.
conference each service detailed by the NAS come a dial-in user constitutes a session, with the start of the session characterized as the allude where service is very first provided and also the end of the session defined as the point where organization is ended. Depending on NAS assistance capabilities, a user can have lot of sessions in parallel or in series.
SHA-1 certain Hash Algorithm; a hashing algorithm the produces a 160-bit digest based top top the input. The algorithm to produce SHA passwords that are irreversible or prohibitively expensive come reverse.
Shared mystery provided to authenticate transactions in between the customer and the RADIUS server. The shared an enig is never sent over the network.
mutual Use Network an IP dial-up network whose use is common by 2 or an ext organizations. Shared use networks generally implement dispersed authentication and bookkeeping in order come facilitate the relationship amongst the sharing parties.
Silently Discard RADIUS discards the packet without further processing. The server logs one error, including the materials of the silently discarded packet, and records the occasion in a statistics counter.
slip Serial Line net Protocol is TCP/IP over straight connections and modems, which allows one computer system to attach to an additional or come a entirety network.
SMDS Switched Multi-megabit Data organization is a high-speed Metropolitan-Area Networking modern technology that behaves prefer a LAN.
SSHA Netscape"s (iPlanet) improvement of the SHA-1 algorithm which has salted password data.
SNAP SubNetwork accessibility Protocol is supplied when a SAP definition does not exist because that the encapsulated user data protocol.
SSL secure Socket layer is the protocol defined by Netscape the is offered for encryption and also authentication in between two web entities. It uses public/private an essential certificates instead of common secrets.
SVC Switched digital Circuit is an L2TP-compatible media on top of i m sorry L2TP is directly encapsulated. SVCs are dynamically created, permit tunnel media come be developed dynamically in an answer to preferred LNS-LAC connectivity requirements.

T
TACACS Terminal accessibility Controller access Control System, a an authentication server that validates user IDs and also passwords, thus managing entry into systems.
Telnet A organization that lets you log in in come a mechanism over a network simply as despite you were logging in indigenous a far character terminal attached to the system. It is generally used to carry out an Internet organization that is precisely the same as the one you would obtain if friend dialed into the system directly with a modem.
trap A network message of a certain format issued by an SNMP entity on behalf of a network monitoring agent application. A trap is supplied to administer the monitoring station through an asynchronous notice of an event.
Tunnel A tunnel is identified by an LNS-LAC pair. The tunnel dead PPP datagrams in between the LAC and also the LNS; many sessions can be multiplexed end a solitary tunnel. A control link operating in band over the very same tunnel controls the establishment, release, and also maintenance that sessions and of the tunnel itself.
Tunnel Network Server A server the terminates a tunnel. In PPTP terminology, this is well-known as the PPTP Network Server (PNS). In L2TP terminology, this is recognized as the L2TP Network Server (LNS).

U
UDP User Datagram Protocol, a data packet protocol.
User perform The list of individuals registered for dial-in access.
User record The UserRecord contains all the details that demands to be accessed in ~ runtime around a certain user. This enables it come be check out in one database operation in bespeak to minimize the price of authenticating the user. The UserRecord is stored together an encrypted wire in the MCD database, because it consists of the user"s password, among other things.
customers users are stood for by entities in certain UserLists. Check out User Record.

V
vendor every NAS has a vendor associated through it. A merchant can specify attributes for the NAS that space not part of the traditional specification.
VHG Virtual residence Gateway—a thedesigningfairy.com IOS component that terminates PPP sessions. That is owned and also managed by the organization provider on behalf of its customer to provide accessibility to remote individuals of that customer"s network. A solitary service provider an equipment (router) have the right to host many VHGs of different customers. A VHG deserve to be dynamically brought up and down based on the access pattern the the remote users. Keep in mind that over there is no solitary IOS feature called the VHG; it is a collection of role and attributes (PPP, online profiles, VRFs, etc.).
VPN Virtual exclusive Network is a way for companies to usage the internet to securely transport exclusive data.
VRF digital routing and also forwarding. A every VPM routing table on the PE router. Each VPN instantiated on that PE router has its own VRF.

W
WAP Wireless application Protocol; one application setting and set of interaction protocols for wireless gadgets designed to allow manufacturer-, vendor-, and technology-independent access to the internet and progressed telephony services.
WPS Wireless Provisioning Service; provides a standards-based and also integrated communication to merely provision and manage your Wi-Fi warm spots. WPS enables users of home windows XP to affix to Wi-Fi hot spots v a smooth sign-up process and allows a much more secure wireless network access.

X
X.25 A reliable public data network technology consisting of personal virtual circuits, digital calling, and per-packet charging.
X.500 specifies the Directory accessibility Protocol (DAP) for clients to use when contacting magazine servers.


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DAP is a heavyweight protocol the runs end a complete OSI stack and also requires a significant amount of computing resources come run.